Welcome! Our site is a free online medical directory of diseases, medicines and medical terms located in alphabetical order. We all get sick, rarely or often, depending on the general state of our health. Our medical encyclopedia will help you understand the not always understandable medical terminology. Here you can not download anything, but using the rubricator or the search you will find descriptions and symptoms of known diseases and instructions on the use of medicines.
The handbook will be useful not only for doctors professionals but also for almost everyone who even knows a little about medicine. Do not take too much self-medication. Before applying the recommendations on the treatment of diseases listed in this guide, be sure to consult a doctor, because because of a lack of knowledge, you can mistakenly take the symptoms of one disease for something completely different and harm your health.
Medicine is a system of scientific practical activity aimed at strengthening and protecting human health, prolonging its life by improving the external environment, preventing and treating diseases.
The nature and level of development of medicine are determined by the material conditions of society, the level of development of productive forces, the nature of production relations. The development of medicine is closely connected with the development of natural sciences, philosophy and technology.
The development of medicine led to the allocation of numerous independent medical disciplines - obstetrics and gynecology , dermatology and venereology, neurology, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology, pediatrics , psychiatry, hygiene, epidemiology and many others.
The medical directory includes descriptions of medical and biomedical sciences that study the structure and vital functions of a healthy and sick organism (anatomy, biochemistry, normal and pathological physiology, etc.), the effect of drugs and their use ( pharmacology ), areas of medicine that develop methods diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases of various organs and systems (therapy, surgery , etc.), a science that studies the impact of living conditions on human health and develops measures aimed at preventing disease ( hygiene ).
In recent decades, new directions in medicine have been particularly vigorous, and new sections have been formed - virology, immunology , medical genetics, radiobiology and many others. All this is shown in this handbook.
Differentiation of medicine significantly improved the ability to fight disease; this process continues constantly, but, in spite of differentiation, a physician of any specialty should not forget about the unity of the organism when treating any disease.
Cooperation of doctors of different specialties is becoming increasingly necessary. Our medical encyclopedia will provide you with all the necessary information.
The decisions of the government of the Russian Federation outlined the grandiose prospects of further growth of the well-being of the population of our country and improvement of the protection of its health. It is envisaged to further build large specialized and multidisciplinary hospitals, polyclinics and dispensaries in order to improve the quality of specialized medical care and to provide the population with all its types to a fuller extent; expansion of the network of emergency stations and sanitary-epidemiological stations; an increase in the number of medical personnel and an increase in the level of its training. In the solution of these problems, an important role belongs to the average medical staff, whose skill development is one of the serious tasks of Russian public health. In the complex of measures to upgrade the skills of average medical workers, one of the leading places belongs to special literature, especially of reference nature. The manuals issued by medical publishers for the average medical worker mainly contain information of a purely practical nature, mainly focused on one of the sections of medical practice (care, first aid, etc.) and, therefore, insufficient to increase the general level of special knowledge of paramedical personnel. This gap can most fully fill our online medical guide. Considering the greatest need for manuals for feldshers and midwives working independently, the editorial board of the medical encyclopedia considered it expedient to subordinate the content of the site primarily to the interests of this contingent of average medical workers. Theoretical information in the articles of the practical plan is given in the volume necessary only for a correct assessment of the essence of the observed phenomena and conscious implementation of practical measures. In describing the issues of medical care and treatment, first of all, the rights and duties of the paramedic and midwife were taken into account. The availability in some articles of information about the activities that fall within the competence of the doctor, is explained by the desire to better give an idea of the therapy of this disease. To expand the horizons of our readers, in addition to articles of a practical nature, a number of articles on the theory of medicine and related fields of knowledge (biology, genetics, cybernetics, etc.) are included in the reference book. An excursus into the history of medicine with acquaintance with the biographies of people who contributed to its development a notable contribution. Editorial site in advance thanks visitors for useful suggestions and criticism, which will certainly help improve our medical directory. As is customary in encyclopedias, articles in the encyclopedia are arranged in alphabetical order. This allows the reader to easily find the desired article. In order for the reader to find information about the terms described in the text of the articles, there is a search box on each page of the site that will help to find those pages where the term is mentioned. If the name of the article is a phrase, then, as a rule, the usual order of words arrangement is preserved, for example: " Aortic aneurysm ", "Anesthetics". However, in a number of cases inversion is applied, that is, the reverse order of words. Inversion is used mainly in the following cases: for combinations of nouns with adjectives, if the noun is also used as the title of the article - "Adaptation auditory", "Muscular atrophy" (the terms "Adaptation" and "Atrophy" are given in separate articles); for eponymic terms, that is, terms that include the names of scientists - " No-nonsense method ", " Billroth resection of the stomach ", "Raynaud disease", Bipolar affective disorder . Foreign terms that are included in the Russian medical terminology, as a rule, are given in the Russian transmission ("arachnoiditis", "bacteriolysis", " hypothalamus ", " wellness ", laser hair removal , etc.). Foreign terms that are used only in the original spelling and are the names of the articles are placed in a general alphabetical order. For example: Acalculium, Acanthosis nigricans, Acanthocephalus. Latin anatomical terms are given in the reference book mainly on the "Paris anatomical nomenclature" (PNA), and pharmacological - in the "State Pharmacopoeia " (X edition). In the articles of the medical encyclopedia, various types of reference tables on preventive and clinical medicine are widely used.
Treatment of diseases
Disease - a violation of the normal life of the organism, which occurs under the influence of harmful factors for him. Treatment of diseases - a set of activities aimed at eliminating the suffering of the patient and restoring his health. The choice of the medication used depends on the natural course and duration of the disease, and also on the prognosis. In this case, it should be borne in mind that each patient gives an individual response to both the causative cause and the remedy.
The medical encyclopedia describes etiological, pathogenetic and symptomatic treatment. Etiological treatment of diseases is used in cases where the cause that caused the disease can be established. An example of etiological treatment is the use of antibiotics for pneumonia , specific sera for infectious diseases, quinine for malaria, removal of a foreign body in case of injury, etc.
Pathogenetic treatment of diseases - therapeutic methods that affect the pathogenesis of the disease in general or its individual links. Pathogenetic treatment is used in cases when it is impossible to influence the cause of the disease, as well as in the process of conducting etiological treatment, when it is necessary to influence pathological processes. An example of pathogenetic treatment of illnesses is the use of various cardiac agents to compensate for cardiac activity in heart defects , as a result of which painful and dangerous manifestations of impaired blood circulation are eliminated. With this type of treatment with the help of various medical methods, they often try to restore the functions of organs and systems disturbed as a result of the disease. Depending on the nature and origin of the disorder, the functions of an organ are applied by a variety of methods of treating diseases: pharmacological, physical or operational. In some cases, as a result of the use of these methods, this or that function is strengthened (for example, heart systole is intensified with the appointment of digitalis, urination with diuretics), in other cases the function is normalized (for example, thyroid function is normalized by radioactive iodine or thyroid gland in hyperthyroidism). In some cases, the inadequate function of the organ is compensated by the introduction of the missing physiological substance in the form of a drug (for example, insulin for diabetes, hydrochloric acid for achlorhydria).
In the process of pathogenetic treatment of diseases, methods that alter the reactivity of the organism are used to change the course of the disease for the better. Since in case of allergic diseases the excessive reactivity of the organism is the leading one in the development of the pathological process, hormone therapy is used that reduces this reactivity. In cases of decreased reactivity of the body, the physical and chemical methods described in the manual- physiotherapy , protein therapy , etc., are used to normalize it.
Symptomatic treatment involves the elimination of certain symptoms, regardless of their cause or the pathogenesis of the disease (eg, amidopyrine for headache, codeine for coughing). Symptomatic treatment of diseases is easily doable and quickly gives the patient relief. However, it must be remembered that sometimes fighting a symptom of the disease before recognizing its cause can cause harm (for example, the appointment of a laxative when the stool is delayed in a patient with acute appendicitis). The treatment of diseases according to vital indications is the main task of emergency therapy.
When carrying out any treatment, an important place is taken care of patients , which in the hospital is carried out by the average medical staff. Care for the sick medical staff should be given no less attention than other types of treatment.
Crucial is the organization of treatment of diseases, which allows you to fulfill all therapeutic purposes. The correct organization of treatment involves an approximate definition of the timing of treatment for a particular disease, a justified plan for the implementation of treatment procedures (at home or in a hospital), the sequence of application of various forms of treatment. Successful treatment is the result of the activities of numerous health workers, collective efforts that ensure the performance of both diagnostic studies and therapeutic procedures and care.
Treatment of patients at the feldsher-midwife point (FAP) is carried out within the competence and rights of the feldsher and midwife. At the FAP, patients are provided with first aid on an out-patient basis and at home, consult patients with a district doctor, and perform its appointments. Almost every article of the medical encyclopedia, together with a description of the symptoms, also gives recommendations for treatment.
Symptom is a symptom of a disease, which is revealed during questioning or an objective examination of a patient. The symptom is the basis for establishing a diagnosis and determining the prognosis of the disease (for example, the appearance of bloody vomiting or melena with ulcer disease worsens the prognosis). Symptoms may indicate the presence of a pathological process in the body (for example, jaundice , cyanosis) or be caused by protective reflexes (for example, vomiting in food poisoning, coughing if a foreign body enters the respiratory tract). Some symptoms observed in sick people can also occur under physiological conditions (for example, heartbeat occurs not only in cardiovascular disease , but also in agitation, physical stress). Symptoms can be an expression not only of morphological changes (eg, enlargement of the liver, spleen), but also functional disorders (motor, secretory and other). Distinguish the symptoms that are characteristic of the defeat of any one system (for example, cough is typical for the defeat of the respiratory system), and the symptoms that occur in the defeat of several systems (for example, dyspnea is typical for the defeat of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems). By the time of appearance, the symptoms are divided into early and late (appear respectively in the early and late stages of the disease). The appearance of new symptoms during the course of the illness may cause suspicion of complication. For their prognostic value, the symptoms are divided into favorable, unfavorable and threatening. The correct diagnosis is facilitated by a critical evaluation of the detected symptoms, especially when questioned, given the possibility of aggravation, simulation and dissimulation. If the patient has several symptoms, try to establish their common mechanism of occurrence and identify the syndrome. Medical Encyclopedia contains detailed descriptions of the symptoms of various diseases.
Obtain drugs by chemical synthesis or from medicinal raw materials by special treatment.
As a medicinal raw material, medicinal plants , animal organs, as well as products of mineral and bacterial origin are used. According to the mechanism of therapeutic and preventive action, the medical reference book of medicines divides them into two large groups: some render this action, changing the functions of certain physiological systems of the organism, others - destroying microbes and parasites - causative agents of diseases.
In the first case, they talk about pathogenetic, in the second - about etiotropic therapy.
There are also substitution therapy, when drugs are introduced into the body that fill the lack of substances formed in the body and take part in the regulation of physiological functions. For example, the introduction of hormonal drugs in the loss of endocrine function of the corresponding gland .
The effect of drugs on the body can manifest itself at the site of its application, before it absorbs into the blood.
This action is called local. The action of the drug, which develops after its absorption (resorption), is called resorptive. With the resorptive action of the drug, some tissues may exhibit particularly high sensitivity to it. In this case, we are talking about the selective action of this medication. The higher the selectivity of the action of the drugs, the less the opportunity for the patient to appear along with the desired effect of undesirable phenomena, which is called the side effect of the drug.
The completeness and speed of absorption of drugs into the blood largely depend on the ways of their introduction into the body. In this regard, more favorable conditions are created when parenteral (i.e., bypassing the gastrointestinal tract) routes of administration. The most rapid and complete supply of drugs to the body occurs with intravenous and inhalation, the slower - with intramuscular. Absorption of drugs administered subcutaneously, is even slower, since subcutaneous tissue receives a less intensive blood supply than muscle tissue. Of the enteral routes of administration (i.e., through the gastrointestinal tract), the administration of drugs through the mouth is most often used. In this case, the drug is absorbed rather slowly. This method of drug administration does not ensure the completeness of the intake into the blood of the whole accepted dose, since the drug can be more or less inactivated before absorption by digestive juices, and after absorption - under the influence of liver enzymes . The sublingual method of drug administration has also spread: the drug is kept under the tongue until it is fully absorbed. With this method, the drug enters the blood, bypassing the stomach and liver . When the drug is administered through the rectum, the substance is more fully absorbed than when injected into the stomach , since the drug is not destroyed by the enzymes in the rectum, and after absorption from the rectum it partially enters the bloodstream without getting into the liver.
Chemical transformations of drugs in the body occur primarily in the liver, but to a greater or lesser extent can be carried out in other tissues. The allocation of drugs is usually done by the kidneys. Gaseous substances and volatile liquids are released with exhaled air. Often in the removal of drugs from the body also involved glands of the gastrointestinal tract and sweat glands. When prescribing medicines, nursing mothers should consider the possibility of releasing substances through the mammary glands.
As a result of repeated injections of drugs, which are slowly eliminated from the body and slowly inactivated in it, it is possible to accumulate them in concentrations exceeding the therapeutic levels. This phenomenon is described in the medical encyclopedia and is called cumulation. To some medicines, when they are repeated, the body gradually loses sensitivity (addiction). In such cases it is necessary to gradually increase the dose. To drugs acting on the central nervous system and causing a state of euphoria (pleasant mood), there may be a pathological predilection (see Drug addiction). The cessation of taking the medicine that caused addiction leads to a number of serious violations of the physical and mental state of the body.
The action of drugs depends on the state of the body. Of great importance is the age of the patient. As a rule, children are more sensitive to drugs. Accordingly, the medical reference book in the special table lists the highest permissible doses of toxic and potent substances for children of different age groups. In the old age, the sensitivity to drugs is also increased. Therefore, it is customary to prescribe some drugs to people over 60 years of age to reduce doses to 50%.
Individuals have some unusually high sensitivity to certain medicines, which is called idiosyncrasy .
In idiosyncrasy, the body's response to the effects of drugs is allergic , manifested by urticaria, edema of the mucous membranes, swollen joints, fever (see Drug disease). With special care, you should prescribe medications to pregnant women, since they can disrupt the processes of laying and developing the tissues and organs of the fetus, which leads to congenital malformations.
An important role in therapeutic practice is played by combining two or more drugs that affect the same functions of the body. If the drugs used together change the physiological processes in the same direction, then they talk about their synergy. In this case, the overall effect of the applied combination of drugs is equal to the sum of the effects of each of the components of the combination (summation) or exceeds this amount (potentiation). With the opposite effect of the drugs used on certain body functions, they speak of the antagonism of these substances. The phenomena of antagonism are used in the treatment of poisoning, as well as to combat the side effects of drugs.
Medicines are produced in different dosage forms. Their storage and accounting in medical institutions depend on which list they belong to, and are determined by the rules specified in the special instruction of the Ministry of Health of Russia. The substances belonging to list A are stored under lock and seal, the drugs of list B are stored separately from other medicines.