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Calcium

Calcium (Calcium, Ca) is a chemical element of the main subgroup II of the periodic system, DI Mendeleev . Sequence number 20, atomic weight 40.08. Calcium is a permanent part of the body.

The following calcium preparations are used in medical practice: crystalline calcium chloride, calcium gluconate, ossocalcinol (see), calcium lactate. Calcium preparations are capable of eliminating disorders associated with deficiency of Ca ++ ions in the body during tetany , spasmophilia , and rickets . They have a desensitizing effect and are widely used in the treatment of allergic diseases ( serum sickness , urticaria, angioedema, hay fever , etc.). Calcium preparations reduce the increased vascular permeability and have anti-inflammatory effect, which is the basis for their use in hemorrhagic vasculitis , radiation sickness , inflammatory and exudative processes ( pneumonia , pleurisy , adnexitis , endometritis , etc.). They are also used to treat a number of skin diseases (itching, eczema , psoriasis , etc.).

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Calcium chloride crystalline (Calcium chloratum crystallisatum, Calcii chloridum crystallisatum) is used in the form of a 5-10% oral solution (5-15 ml 2-3 times a day), as well as intravenously (5-15 ml of a 10% solution). When the drug gets under the skin there is a strong irritation up to necrosis. Method of production: powder, ampoules of 5-10 ml of 10% solution. Calcium gluconate (Calcium gluconicum, Calcii gluconas) is administered orally 2–5 g 2–3 times a day, intravenously and intramuscularly 5–10 ml of a 10% solution daily or every other day. Method of production: powder, tablets of 0.5 g and 10 ml ampoules of 10% solution. Calcium lactate (Calcium lacticum, Calcii lactas) is administered orally at a dose of 0.5–1 g in powders or 5–10% aqueous solution (in hot water) 2–3 times a day.

Calcium preparations are contraindicated with a tendency to thrombosis , advanced atherosclerosis, elevated calcium levels in the blood. Calcium carbonate - see Chalk.

Calcium gluconate. Calcium gluconate (Calcium gluconicum. Calcii gluconas) is a white, granular or odorless amorphous powder; it is difficult to dissolve in cold water (1:50), easily in boiling (1: 6), it is insoluble in alcohol and ether. Contains 9% calcium. The finished solutions are clear, colorless, pH 6.0-7.5.

According to the main pharmacological properties, according to indications and contraindications for use is similar to calcium chloride. It has less local irritant effect and is therefore suitable for subcutaneous and intramuscular use.

Route of administration. It is administered intravenously (slow injection but 5–10 ml of a 10% solution in adults, 1–5 ml of a 10% solution in children), intramuscularly (5–10 ml of a 10% solution, injected only in adults) and inside ( before meals, 2.0–5.0, 3-4 times a day for adults, children from 0.25 to 1.5, 2-3 times a day).

Form release. Powder tablets 0.5; ampoules of 10 ml of 10% solution.

Store in well corked glass jars or in other well corked ware and in the soldered ampoules.
Rp. Calcii gluconici 50.0.
DS 1 teaspoon 2-3 times daily before meals.
Rp. Calcii gluconici 0,5,
D. td N. 20 in tabulettis.
S. 1-2 tablets 3-4 times a day
before eating.
Rp. Sol. Calcii gluconici 10% 10.0. D. td N. 10 in Ampulis. S. At 5-10 ml in the muscles.

Calcium is lactic . Calcium lactate (Calcium lacticum. Calcii lactas) - white grains or odorless white fine powder. Slowly dissolves in cold water (1:20), lightly in hot. Contains 13% calcium.

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Mode of application. It is applied inside in the same cases as calcium chloride and gluconic acid. Unlike the first, it does not irritate the gastric mucosa, in contrast to the second, it is more effective when applied orally, since it contains a higher percentage of calcium. Accept in powders (0.5-1.0) or in 5-10% solution 2-3 times a day.

Crystalline calcium chloride (Calcium chloratum crystallisatum) —is colorless, odorless crystals, a bitter-salty taste, very readily soluble in water (4: 1). When dissolving, water is strongly cooled. Extremely hygroscopic, they dissolve when stored in air. They melt at 34 ° C in their water of crystallization. Contain 27% calcium. The solutions are sterilized at 120 ° for half an hour.

Calcium plays an important role in the vital functions of the body. Calcium ions are necessary for the implementation of the process of transmission of nerve impulses, reduction of skeletal muscles and heart muscles, bone formation, blood clotting and normal activity of other organs and systems. The decrease in the content of ionized calcium in the blood plasma leads to the development of tetany.

Indications. Hypofunction of the parathyroid glands. Increased excretion of calcium from the body during prolonged immobilization of the patient. Allergic states (intravenous calcium in this case leads to the excitation of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system and adrenaline secretion by the adrenal glands). Hemorrhagic vasculitis. Radiation sickness. Inflammatory and exudative processes. Itching. Psoriasis. Eczema. Parenchymal hepatitis. Toxic liver damage. Nephritis. Bleeding. Edema. The drug is also administered to potentiate the action of digitalis.

Mode of application. Calcium chloride is slowly injected into the vein, with a feeling of heat that occurs first in the mouth and then spreads throughout the body.

In case of intravenous administration of the drug, it is necessary to strictly follow all the rules of the technique of administration in order to avoid the death of fiber, which develops when it gets under the skin. In such cases, by sucking a solution of calcium chloride into the tissue without removing the needles, they inject 10-15 ml of a 10% sterile solution of sodium or magnesium sulphate right into the damaged area. The reaction proceeds with the formation of insoluble and non-irritating calcium sulphate.

Contraindications. Tendency to thrombosis. Far advanced atherosclerosis. Increased calcium in the blood.

Form release. Glass jars and ampoules of 5-10 ml of the Southern solution.
Rp. Calcii chlorati 10.0.
Aquae destillatae 200.0.
MDS 1 tablespoon 3-4 times a day.
Rp. Sol. Calcii chlorati 10% 10.0.
D. td N. 6 in ampulis.
S. On 5 - 10 ml in a vein.