Cough is a complex reflex act, which is important in the complex of protective and cleansing reactions of the respiratory system. The cough reflex occurs as a result of irritation of the sensory endings ( receptors ) of the vagus and laryngopharyngeal nerves in the mucous membrane of the pharynx, larynx, bronchi, pleura , etc. The irritations from the receptors enter the medulla oblongata to the "cough center". From here, impulses along motor nerves go to the respiratory muscles, diaphragm, and muscles of the larynx. The cough push consists of a sudden and sharp exhalation, which begins even with a closed glottis. With the force of opening the glottis, the air is pulled out and takes away sputum, mucus and other extraneous masses from the respiratory tract.
The cough reflex is controlled by the central nervous system. Coughing is also possible with the stimulation of receptors located outside the respiratory tract (for example, when the feet are immersed in cold water, mechanical irritation of the external auditory canal). Cough, not caused by changes in the respiratory system, is rare. As a rule, cough, especially long, is a sign of the pathological process in the bronchi, larynx, less often in the pleura.Go
By the nature of a cough is constant, periodic, paroxysmal. Persistent cough is observed in chronic diseases of the larynx, trachea or bronchi, prolonged stagnation of blood in the lungs in cardiac patients. Periodic cough occurs in patients with emphysema , pneumonia, bronchiectasis, in smokers. Coughing attacks are observed with whooping cough. A single episode of strong cough occurs when a foreign body is inhaled; it continues until the foreign body is removed from the respiratory tract.
A cough that is not accompanied by sputum is called dry. Such a cough is observed in the initial stages of acute bronchitis, pleurisy , pulmonary tuberculosis, or when there is stagnation in the lungs.
A cough with sputum appears after a dry cough with bronchitis, pneumonia , pulmonary tuberculosis, etc.
If the cough helps to remove the discharge from the bronchi, creates an effective drainage of the bronchi, then it cannot be suppressed. In these cases, expectorants are prescribed (for example, thermopsis extract 1 tablet 3 times a day).
A dry cough , in addition to unpleasant sensations in a patient, causes serious disturbances in the organs of respiration and blood circulation (increased pressure in the chest cavity, increases the load on the right ventricle of the heart, etc.). For the treatment of dry cough use antitussive drugs (codeine 0.015– 0.03 g no more than 3 times a day, dionin 0.015–0.03 g, but no more than 3 times a day), mustard wraps (see mustard plasters), alcohol compresses on the chest (folded gauze 4 times moistened with 30-40% solution of ethyl alcohol ).