Laboratories (medical). Depending on the objects and tasks of the study, clinico-diagnostic laboratories are distinguished; Sanitary-bacteriological laboratories at sanitary-epidemiological stations with departments: bacteriological, parasitological, especially dangerous infections, toxicology, radiological and others; laboratories at educational and research institutions, serving clinics of institutes and producing thematic research works; Pathoanatomical laboratories; special purpose laboratories - physiological, pharmacological, balneological, forensic, occupational pathology, aviation and space medicine, etc. The most common profiles of medical laboratories are as follows.
Clinical and diagnostic laboratories are part of the medical and preventive institutions (hospitals, polyclinics, dispensaries, etc.). These laboratories can consist of a department of general clinical research, biochemical, serological, cytological and bacteriological departments. The composition of laboratory departments, the scope of their work, the research conducted, and the size of the states are determined by the profile, number of beds (in hospitals) or medical offices (in polyclinics ) of the medical institution that includes the laboratory.The
In clinical diagnostic laboratory, general clinical, hematological, biochemical, microbiological and serological tests are performed. General clinical studies include urine, feces , sputum, and genital secretions; study of body fluids obtained by sensing, - gastric juice, duodenal contents; material obtained by puncture (puncture), - cerebrospinal fluid , fluids from various body cavities. Hematologic analyzes include the morphological study of blood cells, the determination of its physico-chemical properties. Biochemical studies can be performed in a clinical diagnostic laboratory, but with a large amount of work an independent biochemical laboratory is organized (determination of the contents of various substances in body fluids: in urine - chlorides, urea, amylase, etc., in the blood - sugar, cholesterol , residual nitrogen, transaminase , bilirubin, calcium and many other ingredients). Microbiological studies in the clinical diagnostic laboratory are often limited to bacterioscopy - the detection of mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum, gonococcus in the genitalia that is separated. More complex microbiological and serological studies are performed in special bacteriological laboratories (see Bacteriological Laboratory).
Laboratories of Sanitary and Epidemiological Stations (SES). One of the main structural units of SES is the sanitary-bacteriological laboratory. It has several departments: bacteriological, viral-rickettsial, housing and communal sanitation, food sanitation, industrial sanitation .
Sanitary-chemical, parasitological, radiological laboratories are also organized in the large SES. In microbiological laboratories, microbiological studies are carried out to identify the causative agents of intestinal infections, diphtheria, whooping cough, staphylococcal and streptococcal infections, anaerobic infections , rickettsiosis , brucellosis and tularemia (serological research), malaria, anthrax , helminthic invasions and diseases caused by protozoa ; sanitary and bacteriological studies of water, food, air, washings from various objects, research in food poisoning ; sanitary-hygienic research of food products on good quality, conformity to GOST, residual content of pesticides, etc .; sanitary and hygienic study of drinking water, domestic water and industrial wastewater ; research related to the protection of atmospheric air and air production facilities; examination of residential and public premises (microclimate, illumination, carbon dioxide content, etc.).The
In the sanitary-chemical laboratory, analyzes are carried out to determine the composition of food products, analyzes for chemical contamination of environmental objects. Parasitological studies are aimed at revealing the population's damage to helminths and pathogenic protozoa, contamination of soil , water, food. In the radiological department, the measurement of radioactive emissions from various objects, ionization of the atmosphere, etc., is carried out.
In pathoanatomical laboratories, which are organized at the pathoanatomical departments (see) of large hospitals, they study changes in organs and tissues associated with certain diseases.
The laboratory should be separated from other premises of the medical institution; as a rule, it has several rooms - auxiliary and actually laboratory premises. The number of the latter is determined by the scope of work and the profile of the laboratory. It is inadmissible to produce hematological and general clinical studies in one room, there must be a separate room for biochemical and microbiological analyzes.
Sanitary-bacteriological laboratories need boxes for crops in order to isolate pure cultures.
Separately located auxiliary facilities for the reception of material for analysis and registration of analyzes, washing, autoclave, medvodvarnya.
The useful area of the actual laboratory premises should be 7.5-10 l3 per worker; the height of the premises is not less than three meters. The laboratory should be well lit (lighting of workplaces - not less than 300 lux at a total illumination of 100 lux) and have good intake and exhaust ventilation and exhaust hoods.