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Levomycetin

Levomycetin (Laevomycetinum; synonym Chloramphenicolum; list B ) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic. Used for the treatment of typhoid and paratyphoid , dysentery, brucellosis , whooping cough, pneumonia , gonorrhea , purulent infections, tularemia , typhus , trachoma , psittacosis , etc. The drug is usually administered orally for 20-30 minutes. before meals in powder or tablets, 0.25–0.75 g (usually 0.5 g) 3-4 times a day. Treatment is carried out depending on the disease within 4 to 10 days; with recurrent diseases — 2–3 weeks. You can use chloramphenicol in candles, as well as externally in the form of 1-10% liniment or 0.25% aqueous solution (eye drops). With the use of chloramphenicol, allergic reactions, dyspeptic disorders, changes in the blood can be observed; prolonged use can lead to fungal infections of the skin and mucous membranes (candidiasis). The drug is contraindicated in psoriasis , eczema , fungal and other skin diseases. Method of production: tablets of 0.1 g, 0.25 g and 0.5 g; candles containing 0, 1 g, 0.25 g, 0.5 g and 0.6 g of levomycetin; 1% ointment (eye). Keep in a dark place. See also Antibiotics.

Levomycetin (synonym: chloramphenicol, chlormycetin, paraxin, farmicetin) is an antibiotic isolated from the culture fluid of Streptomyces venezuelae. It was also obtained synthetically, which became the main method of obtaining chloramphenicol.

It is difficult to dissolve in water, easily in alcohol, propylene glycol, t ° pl 150.5-151.5 °. Very stable in dry condition; in aqueous solutions, it does not lose activity at t ° 37 ° for a month, and when boiled - for 5 hours. It is steady at wide shifts rn.

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Levomycetin - a broad-spectrum antibiotic. Most Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, pathogenic rickettsia, some large viruses and some fungi are sensitive to it. The maximum tolerated dose of chloramphenicol for white mice when administered per os is 1500 mg / kg, LD 50 –2640 mg / kg. When administered intravenously to rats, rabbits causes the death of all animals in doses of 50-225 mg / kg, LD 50 —110-280 mg / kg. For subcutaneous administration, the LD 50 is 245 mg / kg.

Chloramphenicol is easily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract when administered orally, being found in significant quantities in the blood (maximum 2–4 hours after taking the antibiotic), is rapidly distributed to various organs after oral administration intravenous and intramuscular administration and excreted in the urine after a short period of time ( 6-8 hours after administration of chloramphenicol almost disappears from the blood).

Levomitsetin found wide application in medical practice. It is the only antibiotic that has a pronounced therapeutic effect in typhoid fever. Levomycetin is also prescribed in the treatment of rickettsioses, bacterial dysentery, pneumonia, surgical infections, and some viral diseases. It is applied per os. The daily dose for adults 1-4 g (evenly every 6-8 hours).

The most frequent side effects are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, general asthenia; serious complications: damage to the blood-forming organs, inhibition of bone marrow function, pseudomembranous enterocolitis.

See also Antibiotics.