The Lactosuria


Lactosuria is the appearance in the urine of lactose (milk sugar). Physiological lactosuria is observed at the end of pregnancy and after childbirth. Pathological lactosuria occurs in infants with digestive disorders. With conventional samples for sugar, lactose is indistinguishable from glucose. Therefore, with a positive reaction to sugar in the urine, a special lactose test is used to detect lactosuria, and also use the property of lactose, unlike glucose, not fermented with yeast.

Laminectomy - the operation of removing the arch of one or more vertebrae. It is made for access to the spinal cord with its diseases (tumor, intervertebral disc prolapse, arachnoiditis) or for decompression (removal of compression) of the spinal cord with bone fragments, displaced vertebral body, hematoma, foreign body. In addition to the usual surgical instruments used for operations with spinal injuries (scalpels, sharp and blunt hooks, needle holders, needles, etc.), the following instruments are needed for the production of laminectomy: wide and narrow rasps, nippers for spinning spinous processes and arches of vertebrae, Edson's Erasers, cerebral spatulas, forceps for coagulation and dura mater, gullet probe, round small (better atraumatic) needles, fine silk (see also Surgical instruments).


At operation electrocoagulator, an electroknife, an electro pump is applied. A day before the operation the patient receives light food, in the evening - a cleansing enema and a hygienic bath. Diseases of defecation and urination are often observed in patients with diseases or injuries of the spinal cord. Such patients urinate with a catheter and resort to oily, hypertonic, soap enemas (sometimes to the siphon) or finger (in the glove) cleansing of the rectum . In the morning before the operation, the hair in the field of the operating field is shaved. Under the patient, a soft rubber or polyethylene mattress is placed on the operating table . The operation is performed when the patient is on the side or on the abdomen, anesthesia is local or intubation anesthesia. The cutaneous incision is vertical over the spinous processes.

After skeletonization (exfoliation of soft tissues from bones), spinous processes and arches of the vertebrae are bitten by cutting pliers. In case of traumatic damage of the vertebrae, the skeletonization of the arch and its biting should be started from healthy parts and performed very carefully (the danger of damage to the spinal cord with bone fragments). The further course of the operation depends on the underlying disease. After the operation, the patient is placed on the bed with a shield, on top of which are laid a plastic or air mattress. To prevent trophic disorders, bed linen must be carefully smoothed, the patient's skin is wiped several times a day with camphor alcohol, the patient every 3 hours very carefully turn in the bed, under the heels put cotton-gauze rings. Cleansing enema at least 1 time in 2 days, catheterization of the bladder - 2 times a day. Sutures are removed on the 10th-12th day.

The term of bed rest depends on the underlying disease, but not less than 3 weeks. Dosed massage and exercise therapy in the absence of contraindications, from the second day after the operation.

Lactosuria occurs in 5-13% of women during pregnancy and lactation. Lactosuria is harmless, but it can be taken for glycosuria and begin treatment with sugar-reducing drugs without evidence.