Laryngectomy is a complete extirpation of the larynx with wide removal of surrounding tissue for malignant neoplasms. A more sparing laryngeal surgery is possible - hemilaringectomy, i.e., half of its excision, if the malignant tumor has a strictly limited distribution. Laryngectomy is often used in combination with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. It is performed under infiltration-conduction anesthesia; on the eve of an operation for the night, the patient is prescribed sleeping pills , on the day of the operation, morphine or omnopon is injected subcutaneously. In recent years, mainly used anesthesia. In laryngectomy, the larynx is cut off from the trachea , the anterior wall of the lower pharynx and the upper esophagus. The trachea stump is sutured to the skin of the anterior surface of the neck with the formation of a tracheostomy, into which the tracheotomy tube is inserted. To feed the patient, a rubber probe is inserted through the nose into the esophagus . The tracheotomy tube is surrounded by an aseptic dressing.
In the postoperative period, anti-inflammatory therapy is carried out, hypnotics and sedatives are prescribed, a strict bed rest, meticulous care of the operating wound, daily dressing changes, constant monitoring of the tracheotomy tube are observed (see Tracheotomy ). The first 2-4 weeks the patient eats through a tube in fractional portions every 4 hours. Food should be high-calorie, easily digestible, rich in vitamins, mushy, in terms of volume - not abundant.