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Lasers

Lasers (the initial letters of the English words Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation - light amplification by stimulated radiation; synonymous with quantum generators) are devices for producing narrow beams of high-intensity light energy.

solid-state laser circuit
The solid-state laser circuit: 1 - and 4 - reflecting mirrors of the resonator (mirror 4 is semi-transparent); 2 - pulse pump lamp; 3 - ruby ​​rod; 5 - capacitor; c - power source.

One of the possible schematic diagrams of the laser is shown in the figure. The basis of such a laser is a ruby ​​rod surrounded by a gas-discharge lamp (the so-called pump lamp). The radiation of the lamp leads to the excited state of electrons in the atoms of the ruby ​​rod. Returning to the previous state, the electrons emit energy in the form of a very narrow beam of light.

In medicine, mainly thermal, coagulating (coagulating) action of lasers is used. Devices of this kind are called light coagulators. A narrow light beam of high power makes it possible to produce tissue light coagulation in a split second.

Lasers are used in oncology (therapy of superficial skin neoplasms) and dentistry . They are also used in various studies - in histology, cytology (for operations on individual cells), etc. In ophthalmology, a laser photocoagulator is used in the treatment of certain types of retinal detachment, to prevent detachment in some types of dystrophic retinal changes.

With the help of a laser beam, it is possible to destroy small tumors in the fundus, in the iris. Photocoagulation can be used to form a hole in the iris or in a film of a secondary cataract in order to obtain a subject vision in patients.