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Lentigo

Lentigo, a type of pigmented nevus , is flat or slightly dark above the skin’s patches of dark brown color, 1-2 ml in diameter.

The youth lentigo begins in childhood, the elements are located on different skin areas; There are limited and common forms. The senile lentigo develops on the back surface of the hands, forearms and face. Malignant degeneration is very rare. Special treatment is not required.

Lentigo (from the Latin. Lentigo - lenticular spot; freckles) - limited hyperpigmentation of the skin in the form of brown or black spots, located mainly on the open areas of the skin.

The spots have a rounded or elongated shape, their size is from 2 to 6 mm in diameter, they can slightly rise above the skin level and become noticeable on palpation. Abundant rashes Lentigo often denoted by the term "lentiginosis". Lentigo is more common in older people (senile freckles), but can also be in adolescents.

Siemens (N.W. Siemens) distinguishes three forms of L .: ordinary, spherical with one hair in the center and L. on the stem (up to the size of a pea). The latter variety is more correctly attributed to the fibromas of the skin. The pigmented nevus differs from L., as a rule, by its asymmetrical location, severe limitation and the absence of a familial predisposition. L. may in some cases become malignant.

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Histological examination indicates a lengthening of the epidermal processes; finger-like outgrowths can move away from them. In the basalt layer - a significant accumulation of pigment (which can also be found in the dermis), the number of so-called light cells increases. When L. in the elderly - basophilic collagen degeneration in the upper part of the dermis.

A particular form of Lentigo is distinguished - Dubreuil's limited precancerous melanosis or lentigo maligna. In this form of L., which occurs in old age, mainly in women, dark brown, black or bluish-black patches appear in size from lentil grain to a child’s palm. Rashes can be on the face, chest, oral mucosa and other skin areas. Elements resembling senile warts appear on the surface of the spots, or atrophic changes of the surface occur. The affected areas are increasing. Indicators of malignant transformation are: the appearance of peripheral growth, infiltration and the formation of blue-black nodules.

Periorive lentiginosis with gastrointestinal polyposis [lentiginosis periorificialis et polyposis gastrointestinalis, Peutz's syndrome - Jeghers - Touraine (Peutz - Jeghers - Touraine)]. This syndrome is manifested by multiple pigment spots around the mouth, on the lips and oral mucosa. Pigment spots are combined with polyposis of the stomach, duodenum, small or large intestines. Polyposis is clinically manifested by abdominal pain, nausea, bloody vomiting and bloody feces. Occasionally, intestinal obstruction may occur.

With centrofacial dysraphic lentiginosis of Touraine (lentiginosis centrofacialis dysraphica), along with lentignous spots that are located on the nose, cheeks and other areas, there are various neuropsychic disorders up to idiocy, oligophrenia , etc.

Treatment of the usual form of Lentigo - electrocoagulation, cryotherapy of spots (for cosmetic reasons). Avoid intense sun exposure. If you suspect a malignancy L. the patient must be sent to an oncological institution.