Medical evacuation support ( LEO ) is a system of measures taken during the war to provide medical aid to affected and sick people from the armed forces and the population of the country, their treatment and evacuation. During past wars, including the first world war of 1914–18, the LEO was conducted in the interests of the armed forces. The development of bomber aviation, and then missile weapons, which are capable of defeating not only the personnel of the army and the population of the territory adjacent to the front line, but also the rear areas of the country, made it necessary to conduct LEO also in the interests of the civilian population as a whole. Therefore, at present, there are LEO of the troops and LEO of the population, carried out in the civil defense system (see below).
The medical-evacuation support of the troops is aimed at preserving life with the subsequent restoration of combat capability or working ability of the largest possible number of the affected and sick from among the personnel of the armed forces. Along with sanitary and hygienic and anti-epidemic support (see), medical supplies, medical services measures to protect against enemy weapons of mass destruction (see Protection from weapons of mass destruction) and management of medical services, the OIE is one of the elements of the medical support system for troops. The LEO of the PMP troops is carried out by the appropriate forces and means of medical service of the Armed Forces (see): first-aid posts of military units and units (see the Medical Battalion Station, the Regimental Medical Center); medical battalions of military units; individual medical units (0M0), different in profile and purpose of medical institutions (see. Hospital, military), military-sanitary transport (see. Sanitary transport ).Go
The history of military medicine testifies to the use of two LEO systems: a) “on-site treatment” systems - when the affected and sick are treated near a combat area, and b) an evacuation system, when the vast majority of affected and sick people are evacuated from the combat zone to the rear. .
The use of the “on-site treatment” system is due to the desire to provide the affected and sick with as much rest as possible, for which the adverse effect of long-term transportation on the course of the injury and disease is limited to the maximum. This system was used in the past and may be applied in the future in cases where mass evacuation of the affected and sick to the rear according to the conditions of the situation will be impossible or impractical. The use of the evacuation system is due to the inability, due to the unfavorable conditions of the combat situation, to organize the treatment of a large number of affected and sick patients near the combat area, especially in a situation of maneuverable actions of the troops, when field medical institutions must move behind the troops.
In the past wars, depending on the conditions of the situation, in some cases the treatment of the wounded and sick “on the spot” prevailed, in others - their evacuation to the rear. The elements of “on-site treatment” and evacuation in the LEO system of troops in the wars of the 20th century, including the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945, are especially closely interwoven. During this period, a significant proportion of the wounded and sick (lightly wounded and sick) remained in the medical institutions of the army for treatment until they returned to service. Severely injured patients were also subject to temporary hospitalization, for whom evacuation to the rear was contraindicated due to the severity of their condition (a group of so-called non-transportable). Into the deep rear, all the wounded and sick who were in need of long and complicated treatment were evacuated or when it was obvious that after recovery they would be unfit for military service.
Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of the organization of medical-evacuation support of troops.
The modern LEO system of the troops is shown schematically in Fig. 1. In the units leading the battle, the injured receive first medical aid, rendered in order of self - help and mutual assistance (see Medical assistance, in field conditions), as well as by the personnel of the medical service (orderlies, medical orderlies) of these divisions. The removal and removal of the injured (see) from the battlefield to the battalion medical center or to the concentration sites of the wounded, called the nests of the wounded, is organized by the battalion's paramedic, who provides first aid. In the future, the regiment’s medical service means the victims from the battalion first-aid posts or places of concentration of the affected are evacuated to the regimental medical center (see), where they are given first aid. The provision of qualified medical care is provided by MedSB and OMO. With high mobility of troops and massive sanitary losses, the volume of the first medical and qualified medical aid turns out to be mainly for urgent (life) readings, and under favorable conditions - in full. All affected and patients who need specialized medical care and long periods of treatment, are further subject to evacuation by appointment to the hospital base, which includes various specialized hospitals.