The Forest School (Sanatorium Forest School) is a children's institution, part of the USSR Ministry of Education system, intended for the education and rehabilitation of school-age children (mostly pupils of grades 1–8) who have deviations in their health status.
Children with closed forms of tuberculosis, patients with rheumatism in the interictal period, are sent to the forest school. The selection of children in the forest school is carried out by a medical commission.
The main task of the forest school is to combine the education of children with the promotion of health through the use of natural factors of nature (fresh air, sun) and hygienically correct daily diet and nutrition. Educational work with children is carried out according to the programs of secondary school. School classes are built according to the class-less system (in a class of 20–25 schoolchildren), the duration of a lesson is 40 minutes, the change between lessons is 10 minutes, a large change (30–60 minutes) is used for lunch and a walk. The day regimen provides for a rational distribution of training sessions, recreation, exercise, sports activities and work skills development classes. Day and night sleep in the open air on the veranda are of great health value: in sleeping bags at air temperatures from 5 ° to -15 ° C, at lower air temperatures, children are additionally covered with cotton blankets. The term of stay of children in the forest school for at least 4 months. The forest school is organized for 100–150 children. For a forest school, a land plot of 3–4 th is chosen in a suburban area with a large amount of greenery, preferably with coniferous trees, near flowing water. On the site there are three zones: educational and sports, medical and recreational and economic.Go
In the first zone, classes with an area of at least 2 m 2 for 1 schoolchild, verandas for outdoor activities at a rate of 1.75 m 2 per 1 schoolchild, a library of at least 30 m 2 , a gym at 5 m 2 per each student for therapeutic remedial gymnastics; pedagogical and methodical classrooms (at least 15 m 2 each).
In the treatment and health zone, there is a doctor’s office (15 m 2 ), a treatment room (15 m 2 ), an insulator (box or half box) at the rate of 1 bed per 50 people. Bedrooms (at the rate of 5 m 2 for each student) for no more than 6 people. For day and night sleep in the open air there are provided verandas (4 m 2 for 1 schoolchild; in the immediate vicinity of the veranda there is a warm room for storing bedding), platforms for receiving sun-air baths, water procedures, bathrooms or showers, preferably with foot baths. Meals at a forest school are 4-5 times a day with a total caloric content of 3,000-3,500 kcal. The dining room usually works in one shift, at least 1.2 m 2 must be per student.
For the rest of children, premises with an area of at least 0.6 m 2 per student are provided.
In the cold season, the temperature of the air in the rooms should not be lower than the 17–18s in the bedrooms, 16–18 ° in the classrooms, 15–16 ° in the gym, 18–20 ° in the shower room. The economic zone includes a kitchen, a bath, a laundry , a laundry , a food pantry, a boiler room, and apartments for staff.
School director (teacher education); in the presence of more than 100 children, the position of deputy director for the teaching and educational unit is provided. Along with the teachers, the staff of the sanatorium-forest schools includes a doctor and a nurse . All educational and recreational work is carried out with the direct participation of the doctor and paramedical workers.
The nurse monitors compliance with the regime, monitors the implementation of the rules of personal hygiene by schoolchildren, the hygiene regime in the school, helps the doctor during check-ups and fulfills his appointments.Go
Forest School (sanatorium forest school) is a training and health institution intended for children with tuberculosis, rheumatism and nervous children. The contingents of forest schools are completed with a special medical commission. The term of stay in the forest school is from 2 to 4 months.
The forest school is headed by a director-teacher, the management of educational work is entrusted to the deputy. Director of the educational part, medical care is carried out by a doctor.
In the forest school for children with tuberculosis, students are sent with chronic tuberculosis intoxication of II degree, bronchial gland tuberculosis, peripheral lymph node tuberculosis, with subsided forms of osteo-articular tuberculosis (subject to independent movement of the child), with residual effects after pleurisy. In the forest school for children with rheumatism, students are sent no earlier than 10-12 months. after a postponed attack of polyarthritis, rheumatic heart disease, with a continuous course of rheumatism (“outpatient form”), with mitral valve insufficiency without marked cardiac changes and in the absence of any disturbances from the cardiovascular system.
Pupils with protracted neurotic states of psychogenic origin, persistent asthenic states of various etiologies are sent to forest schools for nervous children; neurosis-like conditions associated with early trophic disorders, toxic encephalopathies and organic brain lesions (consequences of head injuries, meningitis, encephalitis, etc.) without obvious intellectual impairment.
Each forest school has 100–200 schoolchildren aged from 7 to 14 years. Educational work with them is carried out according to the programs of a comprehensive school. For therapeutic and recreational activities using natural factors of nature. Pupils receive physical education, participate in labor processes. The forest school is established rational mode of the day.
Training classes in the forest school are built according to the class-lesson system (the class consists of 20-25 schoolchildren). The duration of the lesson is 40 minutes, the changes between lessons are 10 minutes, a big change (30-60 minutes) is used for lunch and a walk. Training sessions are held in classrooms and on the verandas. Special clothes (warm jackets and trousers, hats, and boots), heated hands, table covers, and training aids using local radiant heating make it possible to conduct lessons on the verandah with wide access to air and during the cold season at an outdoor temperature of –18 °. The forest school organizes day and night sleep on the verandas: in sleeping bags at air temperatures from +5 to - 15 °; at lower temperatures (up to –20 °), children are additionally covered with cotton blankets. Food in the forest school - 4-5-fold. The total caloric content of 3000 - 3500 cal. The first breakfast accounts for 25% of the daily ration, the second - 5–10%, for lunch - 35–40%. for lunch - 5-10%, for dinner - 20%.
Forest schools are located in green areas of suburban areas, in the wooded surroundings of settlements; the land plot of the forest school is 2–5 hectares. On a plot landscaped not less than half, the following is allotted: 1) an educational and sports zone with outdoor classes (glazed light-weight pavilions or canopies), sports fields, canopies for gymnastics in inclement weather, a garden and a vegetable garden; 2) medical and recreational area with platforms for sun-air baths, water treatments, daytime sleep in the air; 3) economic zone with a bath, laundry, boiler room, glacier, etc.
The premises of the forest school (training, bedrooms, dining, etc.) can be placed in one or more buildings connected by insulated transitions. Classrooms have an area of 50 m 2 (at the rate of at least 2 mg per student), verandas for outdoor activities at the rate of 1.75 mg per student; gymnasium - 5 m 2 per student; assembly hall - 1 m 2 per student. Bedrooms (5 m 2 per place) are provided for no more than 6 people. For sleeping in the air, there are unheated verandahs adjacent to the building of the forest school (4 m 2 per place); In the immediate vicinity of the verandas there is a warm room for storing bedding. A doctor's office (15 m 2 ), a room for medical procedures (15 m 2 ), an insulator (by 2-3% of the total composition of children) in the form of half-boxes with a separate exit make up the medical part of the forest school. In the forest school for nervous children it is necessary to have rooms for water and light therapy, as well as a speech therapist office. In the showers, 1 horn falls on 20 children, in the washrooms there is 1 tap for 8 children, and in the latrines 1 point for 12 children. On each floor there is a room for cleaning clothes and shoes. The wardrobe is equipped with individual lockers, and a drying room for the upper dress and shoes is arranged near it.
All premises of the forest schools are illuminated with direct natural light. The light coefficient for educational rooms and bedrooms is 1: 5, the verandahs are 1: 2, the rest of the rooms are 1: 8. Artificial lighting in classrooms, classrooms, library, reading room - no less than 150 lux, in the gymnastics and assembly halls - 100 lux. In the forest school arrange central exhaust ventilation. In the classrooms and bedrooms, there is wide access to fresh air through the transom, sash windows (the ratio of the area of transoms to the floor area of at least 1:30). Heating should be central water, but allowed and stove. In the cold season, the temperature of the air in the rooms should not be lower than 17-18 ° in the bedrooms, 16-18 ° in the classrooms, 15-16 ° in the gym, 18-20 ° in the shower room and in other rooms.