Go Mortality (mortality)
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Mortality

Mortality (mortality) is an indicator calculated by the ratio of the number of deaths from this disease to the number of patients with this disease and expressed as a percentage. Mortality should not be confused with mortality - the ratio of the number of deaths from this disease to the average population. There are mortality of patients in the hospital and community-acquired lethality.

Mortality of patients in the hospital is determined as follows:
Number of deaths X 100 / Number discharged + number of deaths
Extra hospital lethality is determined in a similar way - by the ratio of the number of deaths to the number of patients treated outside hospitals (for this nosological form of the disease).

They also determine the overall mortality rate — the ratio (expressed as a percentage) of the sums of the numbers of deceased in hospitals and beyond them to the number of all patients.

Estimation of mortality rate in the hospital is difficult, since its magnitude is determined not only by the quality of treatment in the hospital, but also by the composition of patients (differing in age, nosological forms of diseases, hospitalization periods), quality of treatment before hospitalization, etc.

Mortality should be analyzed mainly for individual nosological forms, studying the complete medical history of the deceased. Calculation of mortality is made according to hospital reports for the year, half year, quarter, month. For an accurate calculation of hospital mortality during the reporting period, information is needed on the number of patients who were in the hospital at the beginning and at the end of the reporting period, and on the number of admissions, discharge and death during this time. In these cases, mortality is calculated as the ratio of the number of deaths to the number of patients treated. Comparing mortality rates is possible only for homogeneous groups of patients.

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The improvement of the material standard of living and the improvement of the sanitary culture of the population of the USSR, the successes of Soviet health care have led to the disappearance in our country of many infectious diseases and the sharp decline in mortality from a number of other diseases.

In a complex of factors affecting the decline in mortality, it is important to prepare the hospital to provide immediate assistance for admission, clear work of nursing staff: proper organization of care for patients , timely and accurate implementation of all appointments and instructions of the doctor, etc. See also Mortality .

Mortality (from the Latin. Letalis - fatal) - mortality, the ratio of the number of deaths from any disease to the number of patients with this disease is usually expressed as a percentage. Mortality and mortality should not be confused (see) - the ratio of the number of deaths from this disease to the average population number among which diseases occurred. The term “mortality from a disease” sometimes used in hospital statistics is incorrect.

There are hospital mortality (the ratio of the number of deaths in hospitals from any disease to the number treated for this disease), community-acquired (a similar ratio of the dead and the sick who were treated outside the hospitals) and the total (the total ratio of all those who died in and out of hospitals this disease in and out of hospitals). The last two indicators are not very reliable due to insufficient registration of patients and not always accurate community-acquired diagnoses of causes of death.

The calculation of mortality should not be carried out in the hospital as a whole (except for the relatively rare cases where the composition of patients in the hospital is completely homogeneous), since the magnitude of mortality varies considerably with the composition of patients, which makes it difficult to compare the size of mortality in different hospitals. It is more expedient to compare mortality rates for the same diseases. When calculating mortality, it is necessary to take into account the effect on her age, and sometimes the gender of the patient, the clinical form of the disease, the duration and completeness of hospitalization, etc., and to compare mortality rates only for homogeneous groups of patients, and for a small number of them to apply standardization of mortality rates. The mortality of complicated and uncomplicated diseases should be measured separately.

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In the case of acute diseases or exacerbations of chronic diseases, hospital mortality can be an indicator of the quality of work of medical institutions. Comparison of the lethality of operated and non-operated patients with the same disease, as well as the relationship of its size with the timing and nature of the operation, is one of the ways to characterize the work of the surgical departments of hospitals.

Hospital mortality from chronic diseases cannot be an indicator of the quality of hospital work, since a patient who is discharged from a hospital may die from his illness some time after discharge. For such patients (patients with malignant tumors, diabetes mellitus, tuberculosis, chronic cardiovascular diseases), instead of mortality, the average life expectancy from the beginning or from the end of hospital treatment to death or the size (%) of survival of patients for 3, 5 and 10 years after treatment.

With in-depth study of mortality rate, it should be calculated according to data on completed cases of treatment, i.e., through the development of materials from the smoked case histories of all patients with this disease who were under treatment. For operational purposes, the measurement of mortality is made according to hospital reports for shorter calendar periods (year, half year, quarter, month). Measure mortality for periods shorter than the average duration of treatment for this disease should not be. Accurate measurement of hospital mortality during the reporting period requires information on the number of patients who were in the hospital at the beginning and at the end of the reporting period, and on the number of admissions, discharge and death during this time. In these cases, mortality is measured by the ratio of the number of deaths to the number of patients treated. The last number is defined as the half-sum of patients who entered, were discharged and died. With slow turnover (the sum of those who arrived and left the hospital is less than the sum of those who were in the hospital at the beginning and at the end of the reporting period), the mortality rate is measured by the ratio of the number of deaths to the sum of the number of patients who were at the beginning of the year and the half-difference of the numbers of patients who arrived and discharged. S. A. Novoselsky considers the measurement of mortality as the ratio of the number of deaths to the sum of the numbers of patients discharged and deaths to be erroneous, since the mortality rate is an intensive rather than an extensive coefficient.

Mortality rates are not constant. They depend on the age composition of patients, the reactivity of their organisms (which in turn depends on living conditions), the improvement of diagnostic methods and, consequently, the earlier start of treatment, the increase in the effectiveness of therapeutic, surgical and other treatment methods, etc.

The improvement in the material standard of living and the sanitary condition of the population in the USSR, the success of Soviet health care, led to the disappearance of many infectious diseases in our country and the sharp decline in mortality from other diseases. The further development of medicine and the improvement of the organization of health care in the USSR will ensure a subsequent decrease in mortality. See also Sanitary statistics.