Therapeutic physical culture (LFK) is a therapeutic method, the main means of which are physical exercises, used with a curative and therapeutic and preventive purpose in trauma and various diseases. LFK along with the main task (restoration of impaired functions) brings up the speed of reaction, strength, endurance, agility, coordination and helps to return to social work sooner after illness. LFK is used in combination with a correctly organized regimen in clinical, polyclinic, sanatorium and spa practice and at home.
Physical exercises alter the reactivity of the body : primarily affect the central nervous system, causing a change in the mobility of nervous processes in the cerebral cortex; Correct the functions of the basic systems of the body ( blood circulation , breathing, etc.), the processes of metabolism; contribute to their compensation; affect the emotional state of the patient, distract from the thought of the disease, cause a feeling of vivacity and confidence.
Fig. 1. Different types of exercises:
1 - passive;
2 - active with projectiles;
3 - active on the gymnastic wall.
Fig. 2. Basic exercises for strengthening the muscles of the abdominal wall in a standing position.
LFK is indicated for open and closed fractures, soft tissue injuries with the purpose of faster healing, formation of bone callus, with contractures of various origins, polyarthritis, spondylitis , spondylosis . It is widely used in operations on the abdominal, thoracic cavities, etc. (pre- and post-operative gymnastics) as a means of preventing various postoperative complications ( pneumonia , intestinal atony, adhesions , restriction of movement in the joints, etc.) and fighting them. Physical exercises improve the nutrition of the heart muscle, enhance its contractile function. LFK is used for heart defects in the initial stages of circulatory failure, myocarditis in the subacute and chronic period, cardiosclerosis , stenocardia , myocardial infarction, hypertension , hypotonic conditions; with diseases of the vessels of the extremities: obliterating lesions of the arteries, chronic thrombophlebitis and varicose veins. Physiotherapy is indicated for lung diseases (pneumonia, pleurisy, tuberculosis , bronchial asthma, emphysema , pneumosclerosis , etc.); stomach and intestines ( gastritis , colitis, enteritis , enterocolitis), with the lowering of the stomach and other internal organs, constipation, peptic ulcer , liver and biliary tract diseases; in diseases of metabolism and endocrine (obesity, gout , diabetes mellitus ); diseases of the female sexual sphere (chronic inflammatory processes, omission of the walls of the vagina , abnormal position of the uterus, disorders of the menstrual cycle). LFK is used in the postpartum and menopausal periods. Physical exercises are widely used in diseases and injuries of the central and peripheral nervous system. LFK is shown as a method of restorative therapy for paralysis and paresis caused by impaired cerebral circulation, with the consequences of diseases of the nervous system ( encephalitis , meningitis, poliomyelitis , polyneuritis , radiculitis , vestibular function disorders and neuroses). LFK is widely used in the complex treatment of various pathologies in children ( rheumatism , diseases of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, etc.). Especially shown LFK as a therapeutic and preventive remedy for defects and diseases of the musculoskeletal system in children (disorders of posture, scoliosis , flat feet , etc.).The
The main means of therapeutic physical training - complexes of physical exercises - are divided into gymnastics, sports-applied ( swimming , rowing , skis , skates , etc.), mobile and sports games . They are used in combination with natural factors of nature (air, water, sun), which are most fully used in the conditions of sanatorium treatment. Of the complex of funds most often prescribed gymnastic exercises in the form of therapeutic gymnastics. When appointing a patient to self-study at home, special recommendations are given for self-monitoring. Gymnastic exercises are classified: a) according to the anatomical principle - for small muscle groups (brushes, feet, faces), medium (neck, arm, shin, perineum muscles), large muscles (muscles of hip, abdomen, back); b) by activity (Figure 1) - passive and active; the latter can be free, light (in water, on a sliding surface, etc.), with effort, on relaxation, etc .; c) according to the species principle - respiratory, preparatory, corrective, in throwing, equilibrium, resistance, with shells, crawling, climbing, jumping, jumping, in the visors and stops, etc.
Therapeutic gymnastics for children - see Gymnastics, for young children.
Fig. 3. Basic exercises for strengthening the muscles of the abdominal wall in the sitting position.
Fig. 4. Basic exercises to strengthen the muscles of the abdominal wall in the prone position.
Fig. 5. Medical gymnastics with gynecological diseases in the supine position.
Physical exercises are used in the form of general and special training. The tasks of general training: strengthening the body, improving the functions of the main systems. Special training is aimed at the restoration of impaired functions. To carry out the tasks of a special training, these or other groups of exercises are selected. For example, to strengthen the abdominal muscles exercises are used in the standing, sitting and lying positions (Fig. 2-4); to improve blood circulation in the pelvic region - in the supine position (Figure 5).
The condition for the effectiveness of exercise therapy is a long, regular, regular exercise with a gradual increase in the load in each procedure, and throughout the course of treatment; taking into account the individual characteristics of the patient: age, profession, motor activity, characteristics of the course of the disease. LFK is applied in the form of a procedure of therapeutic gymnastics - individually or in groups (in the ward, in the room of therapeutic gymnastics or in an open area), pre- and post-operative gymnastics; independent study of patients performing tasks; morning hygienic gymnastics (see Charge ). An additional form of exposure is mechanotherapy (see). In addition, it uses near tourism (see), metered climbing (see Terrenkur ), skis, skates, rowing, swimming, games.
Methodical principles of classes: the load is dosed according to the physical capabilities of the patient, general restorative exercises should alternate with respiratory and special exercises. The amount of workload in the classes depends on the starting position, the duration of the procedure, the number of repetitions of exercises, the pace, the volume of movements, their complexity, the degree of effort in the exercise, the use of shells, a combination with breathing exercises.
The methodical guidance of exercise therapy is carried out by medical and sports clinics, which include physicians' offices with a staff of physicians and LFK instructors.
Exercises LFK in a feldsher-midwife point is conducted only by the instructor (methodologist) of physical therapy or an average paramedic with special training. The gyms should have a gym bench, a wall, a horizontal ladder, sticks, maces, dumbbells, balls, etc.