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Personal hygiene

Personal hygiene is a set of hygienic rules of human behavior in the workplace and at home. The implementation of the rules of personal hygiene contributes to the preservation and strengthening of human health.

Personal hygiene rules include daily routine, work and rest, rational nutrition, hardening , physical culture, skin care, hygiene of clothes, shoes and housing.

A clearly and rationally compiled daily routine saves a person’s strengths, maintains his health, and increases life expectancy . The mode of the day can not be the same for all people without distinction of age, profession and state of health. However, there are general hygiene requirements that are the same for people of any age: the right combination of mental and physical labor, physical training , regular meals, alternation of work and rest.

There are two types of recreation: active and passive. Passive rest is complete rest. The most complete form of passive rest is sleep . Sleep is associated with the implementation of a number of hygienic requirements - a clean, comfortable bed, a certain temperature of the room, its ventilation. Active rest is a change in the type of work, gymnastics (see), sports games (see), walks. Physical culture is a means of physical education of the population and an important element of personal hygiene. With active rest, working capacity is restored faster and mental fatigue passes.

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Nutrition is a biological human need. Rational, complete nutrition ensures optimal development of the human body, physical and mental performance. General principles of good nutrition for all categories of people: sufficient calorie, sufficient amount of proteins, fats, carbohydrates . It is necessary to take into account the saturability, digestibility and gain of food, as well as observe diet. Maintaining cleanliness while cooking is the most important rule of personal hygiene, in violation of which microbes can get into food and cause food poisoning or intestinal disease.

The personal hygiene in the narrow sense of the word includes the hygienic requirements for the maintenance of a person’s body, his linen, clothes, shoes, and dwelling. From the care of the skin, teeth, hair depends on the state of human health. With insufficient skin care, dust and dirt clog the excretory ducts of the sweat and sebaceous glands, creating favorable conditions for the development of microorganisms and fungi. Contaminated skin is more often exposed to diseases such as furunculosis , eczema , scabies . The basic rule of skin care is to take care of its purity. At least once a week, you must visit the bath or wash in the bath.

Hands become especially dirty. Dirt containing pathogenic microbes and helminth eggs can get from hands to mouth through food. Dysentery, for example, is called the disease of dirty hands. Clean hands are a prerequisite for food service workers, the food trade, the food industry, and water supply. There are cases of food poisoning , the cause of which were pustular diseases in the hands of the cook. An indicator of hand contamination is the presence of Escherichia coli during bacteriological examination of washes from their surface.

Oral care not only preserves the integrity of the teeth, but also prevents many diseases of the internal organs (heart, joints, kidneys, etc.).

Lingerie, clothes, shoes play a large role in protecting the body from pollution, cooling, chemical and mechanical damage, from ticks in the taiga regions of the country.

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In many enterprises, when working with toxic chemicals, radioactive and other substances, overalls are used (gowns, overalls, rubber boots, gloves, etc.), personal protective equipment ( respirators , gas masks ); To protect your hands from substances that irritate the skin, apply special ointments, emulsions .

The rules of personal hygiene of the food industry include a monthly medical examination, regular examination for bacterio-and hormone-carrying, fluorography, and the Wasserman reaction, as well as delivery of a health minimum before going to work.

Personal hygiene skills should be taught to a person from childhood. A major role in the inculcation of sanitary skills is played by health education (see).

Personal hygiene - a set of hygienic rules of human behavior in the workplace and in everyday life; in a more narrow sense - the hygienic content of the body, linen, clothes and shoes, bedding, tableware and other household items. Gross violations of personal hygiene requirements may affect the health and disability of the whole team. Personal hygiene is particularly important for catering and public service personnel. Strict compliance with the rules of personal hygiene is an important link in the chain of preventive measures aimed at combating infectious and invasive diseases.

An important prerequisite for the normal administration of physiological functions is the purity of the skin. The hygienic content of the oral cavity is an important condition for the preservation of teeth, the prevention of caries and other odontogenic diseases. Body hygiene and skin care are inseparable from physical culture (see) and hardening (see) of the body. Hardening of the skin of the feet is an important element of foot care and an effective means of combating sweating.

Washing the feet with cool water in winter and summer, especially before bedtime, should also be considered as a means of preventing frostbite (see).

An important role in the care of the body is played by underwear, clothing and footwear, ensuring the purity of the skin and protecting the body from pollution and traumatic injuries. Under certain circumstances (development of the taiga areas and deserts), clothing requires protection from arthropods (lice, fleas, ticks). This is achieved by the impregnation of garments with insecticides and a special cut.

Special requirements are placed on materials used to manufacture industrial clothing (see), designed to protect the body from mechanical, chemical, thermal and radiation (protection from radioactive substances) damage.

Reasonable use of rest time (see) at the end of the working day and at the end of the working week is a necessary condition for recuperation and maintaining high productivity. In this case, an important role is played by physical education, sports, physical labor and a variety of outdoor games, air and sunbathing. These activities and procedures that temper the body, enhance metabolism, develop and strengthen muscles, tone up the heart and blood vessels.

Calm and deep sleep, necessary for rest and recuperation of the body, is also associated with the implementation of a number of hygienic measures (clean, comfortable bed, the optimum temperature of the sleeping room, mandatory ventilation of it before bedtime and after sleep). In connection with the problem of rest and recuperation, psychiatric hygiene should be considered, which plays a significant role in the prevention of nervous, cardiovascular and other diseases.

Hygienic skills should be instilled in childhood, consolidated in school years and firmly introduced into the daily routine from the beginning of work. Hygienic education occupies a prominent place in the distribution among the population, workers and employees, students and military personnel of sanitary and hygienic knowledge (see. Sanitary education). One of the methods of raising hygienic skills is the sanitary minimum, developed for staff of buffets, food warehouses, canteens, bakeries, kitchens, food industry enterprises, etc. Employees of public catering establishments should take a shower before starting work, replace regular clothes for work or health (bathrobes, overalls, trousers and jackets, aprons, caps and scarves). Persons in contact with food and ready-made food, it is advisable to do a manicure. For disinfection of workers' hands in food enterprises, glass bottles or tilting cans with a 0.2% bleach solution for washing hands after visiting the restroom are installed. Strict sanitary inspection is established for the state of sanitary clothing for food industry workers, the cleanliness of their hands, and also for their compliance with personal hygiene requirements.

Under production conditions, health and safe working conditions are ensured by a system of measures stipulated by law. In a number of industries a prominent place belongs to the measures of personal prevention, including various protective devices of an individual nature. These devices play an important preventive role, especially in emergency situations, during repair work, etc. The list of occupations in which it is necessary to use personal protective equipment, their description and nomenclature are developed in the relevant departments with the participation of hygienists, representatives of trade unions and state authorities. sanitary-epidemiological service. Personal protective equipment is issued at the expense of enterprises and institutions with mandatory preliminary instructions on the procedure and rules for their use. At large enterprises
Special workers are responsible for providing workers with personal protective equipment and proper maintenance.

Due to the widespread introduction into agricultural practice of pesticides used to control pests and diseases of cultivated plants, as well as weeds, strict compliance with the rules of personal hygiene during transportation, storage and use of pesticides containing mercury, arsenic, copper, fluorine, nicotine, anabasin and other poisons. When working with pesticides, it is forbidden to smoke and eat, store food in their pockets. All persons in contact with pesticides should be provided with special clothing and, if necessary (for example, when seed treatment) must have respirators and anti-dust glasses. After work, be sure to wash in the shower or in the bath and rinsing the mouth. Control over the observance of sanitary rules is imposed on the bodies of the State Sanitary Inspectorate and, on their instructions, on rural medical sites or obstetric stations.

Strict compliance with the requirements of personal hygiene is an essential element of the radiation safety of personnel of enterprises and institutions using radioactive substances for scientific, industrial, or medical and diagnostic purposes.

Compliance with the rules of personal hygiene is important to maintain the combat capability of the troops. According to the Charter of the internal service of the Soviet Army, the commanders of companies, platoons and detachments are obliged to take care of maintaining the health of their subordinates and monitor their compliance with the rules of personal hygiene. Body hygiene and proper care of it contribute to improving the health of a soldier and increasing his resistance to adverse environmental factors. Monitoring the exact implementation of statutory provisions relating to the personal hygiene of a fighter is a direct official duty of commanders, military doctors, medical assistants and sanitary instructors. An effective means of monitoring the implementation of measures in the field of personal hygiene in the army are medical and bodily examinations carried out within the deadlines determined by the Charter of the internal service.