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Face

The face (Latin facies, Greek prosopon) is the front part of the human head.

The size, shape and relief of the face depend on individual characteristics. Borders: the edge of the hairy cover of the forehead and temples, the posterior edge of the auricle, the lower edge and the angle of the mandible .

There are regularities in the ratio of the thickness of the soft tissue layer above the surface of the bones of the facial skeleton. The number and severity of the skin folds of the face increase with age.

Violations of the formation of the face in the period of prenatal development lead to the formation of congenital facial clefts. The final formation of the outlines of the face is completed by 20-23 years for men and by 16-18 years for women. With aging (after 40 years), age-related changes are expressed in loss of skin elasticity (wrinkles) and changes in facial contours, which is primarily due to loss of teeth and atrophy of the alveolar process of the jaws.

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The bony base of the face is paired bones: the nasal, lacrimal, zygomatic, maxillary, inferior turbinate, palatine and unpaired bones: the lower jaw and vomer. The lower jaw is movably articulated with the temporal bones of the two temporomandibular joints. The remaining bones are firmly connected by sutures between themselves and with the bones of the cerebral part of the skull . The shape of the auricle and partly the nose is determined by cartilage.

facial muscles
Fig. 1. Facial facial muscles: 1 - occipital-frontal muscle (frontal abdomen); 2 - the muscle wrinkling eyebrows; 3— “muscle of the proud”; 4 - circular muscle of the eye; 5 - circular muscle of the mouth; 6 - muscle, lowering the angle of the mouth; 7 - submental muscle; 8 - muscle, lowering the lower lip; 9 - muscle laughter; 10 - muscle, raising the angle of the mouth; 11 - muscle lifting the upper lip; 12 - zygomatic muscle; 13 - the nasal muscle.
topographic areas of the face
Fig. 2. Topographic areas of the face: 1— frontal; 2 - orbital; 3 - the nose; 4 - infraorbital; 5 - oral; 6 - mental; 7 - cheek; 8 - parotid-masticatory; 9 — zygomatic; 10 - auricle area; 11 - temporal.

birth defects
Fig. 3. Congenital defects of the face; 1 — median cleft of mandible; 2 - oblique cleft face; 3 - transverse cleft of the face; 4 - incomplete cleft upper lip; 5 - complete cleft of the upper lip; c - complete bilateral cleft of the upper lip, alveolar process and palate .

Facial muscles : chewing, which provide movement of the lower jaw, and facial muscles , located across the surface of the facial skeleton (Fig. 1). They change the shape of the mouth, eyes, nose, collect the skin into folds, which give the face a different expression.

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The skin of the face is relatively thin. Its color depends on age, gender, racial differences, as well as changes in the blood supply of blood vessels under the influence of cooling, overheating, or emotions . Persistent discoloration of the skin can be observed in a number of pathological conditions.

The blood supply to the face is very abundant, carried out by the system of branches of the external carotid artery. The outflow of blood from the face mainly occurs in the external and internal jugular veins; in addition, the venous network of the face communicates with the venous network of the cerebral part of the skull.

The lymphatic system of the face is very well developed, the lymph flows into the regional lymph nodes, mainly located on the lateral surface of the face, under the lower jaw and on the lateral surface of the neck.

The face is innervated by the branches of the trigeminal and facial nerves.

Topographically, the face is divided into a number of areas: frontal, orbital, nose, infraorbital, oral, chin, cheek, auricular-chewing, zygomatic, auricle, and temporal (Fig. 2). The boundaries between areas, as a rule, coincide with the boundaries of the bones of the facial skeleton; in addition, the borders are the natural skin folds (furrows) of the face - nasolabial, chin-labial.

Pathology Of the malformations, there are crevices of the face (Fig. 3), most often of the upper lip, the so-called cleft lip.

Facial hemiatrophy is a disease manifested by progressive atrophy of soft tissues (skin, fatty tissue, muscles) and bone formations of one half of the face, observed mainly in women. No pain. There is a violation of sweating on the affected half of the face. The cause of the disease is not clear, a number of authors associate it with damage to the nervous system.

Treatment involves the use of methods of reconstructive surgery and orthopedics ( transplantation of adipose tissue, cartilage grafts, the manufacture of special dentures, etc.).

Hemihypertrophy of the face is manifested by an increase in the muscles of one half of the face or by the presence of bone changes, usually in the lateral parts of the lower jaw. In most cases, the cause of the disease is not clear. Treatment - excision of excess muscle or bone tissue.

Facial wounds due to the abundant blood supply to the tissues heal well. When the edges approach with seams or strips of plaster, a cut wound to the face, even containing a microflora, usually heals by primary intention.

Acute purulent infection of the face most often manifests itself in the form of erysipelas (see) or boil (see). Less common carbuncle (see). A carbuncle and even a furuncle of a face, when localized on the nose or upper lip, creates a great danger of a transfer of the infection to the lining of the brain. Attempts to squeeze face boils are completely unacceptable. Among chronic infections of the face, tuberculosis of the skin and maxillofacial actinomycosis are most important (see).

On the face are often atheroma (see) and tumors - cancer of the lower lip, angioma.

See also Lips , Nose .