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Lymph

Lymph is a fluid circulating in the intercellular spaces, lymphatic vessels and capillaries, the chemical composition of which is similar to that of blood plasma, tissue, cerebrospinal and other body fluids. The most important difference of lymph from blood plasma is a lower protein content. The total protein content varies in different parts of the lymphatic system , averaging about half of its content in the plasma. The albumin-globulin coefficient (see) lymph is usually slightly higher than the blood plasma. The concentration of individual amino acids in the lymph is almost the same as in the serum. In the lymph there are a small number of cellular elements, among which lymphocytes predominate. Lymph viscosity due to lower protein content is less than blood plasma viscosity. The reaction of lymph slightly alkaline. Lymph contains fibrinogen and prothrombin , coagulates more slowly than blood.

The role of lymph in the body is to supply cells and tissues with nutrients and to remove metabolic products. When the body digests food in the lymph, the fat content dramatically increases (its content in the lymph of the thoracic duct, for example, reaches a maximum after 6 hours after a meal).

A starving lymph is a clear or slightly opalescent sugary liquid and salty in taste. In the lymph taken from individual organs, the concentration of substances secreted by them can be significantly greater than in the bloodstream. So, lymph, flowing from the thyroid gland , pituitary, etc., is rich in corresponding hormones. Poisons and toxins , especially bacterial, easily pass into the lymph. It is established that strychnine from the lymph enters the blood.

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Lymph (from the Latin. Lympha - pure water, moisture) - the fluid contained in the lymphatic vessels and capillaries. The chemical composition of lymph is similar to that of blood plasma, tissue fluid, cerebrospinal, synovial, amniotic, and other body fluids. Some differences in the composition of these fluids depend mainly on the unequal permeability of the membranes separating them from the blood and from each other. The composition of the lymph taken from different parts of the body is also different, which is connected both with the release of a number of substances into the lymph by certain organs, and with the unequal absorption by them of the individual constituents of the lymph.

The most important difference of lymph from blood plasma is a lower protein content. The albumin-globulin lymph coefficient is usually slightly higher than the blood plasma. The total protein content is unequal in different parts of the lymph flow and averages about half of its content in the blood plasma. The total osmotic concentration in the lymph is higher, and the colloid osmotic pressure is lower than in the serum.

The concentration of individual free amino acids in the lymph is almost the same as in the serum, and the experimentally detectable fluctuations are not regular. During periods of digestion, the concentration of substances absorbed from the intestine in the lymph. rises significantly. At the same time, in the hilus (lymph of the mesenteric ducts) the fat content sharply increases, while the concentration of carbohydrates increases less, and that of proteins only slightly. Much of the fat from the intestines is absorbed through the lymphatic system. The fat content in the lymph from the thoracic duct reaches a maximum approximately 6 hours after eating, and can many times exceed the initial concentration of fat in the lymph.

In the lymph of individual organs, the concentration of substances screened by them can be much greater than in the bloodstream. So, lymph, flowing from the thyroid gland, pituitary, pancreas, etc., is especially rich in the corresponding hormones. In this regard, a number of authors speak of "lymphocrinia," that is, the separation of hormones in the lymph. Therefore, the introduction of various toxins and other antigens causes the formation of antibodies in the lymph of the same area earlier than in the blood.

See also Lymph circulation.

Lit .: See the literature on the article Lymph circulation.