Lymphatic-hypoplastic diathesis is an anomaly of the constitution caused by hereditary metabolic disorders (amino acids), immunogenesis processes and endocrine glands function, characterized by an allergic "mood" of the body. With lymphatic-hypoplastic diathesis, acute forms of diseases and inflammatory processes often turn into chronic forms. Typically, lymphatic-hypoplastic diathesis occurs in infants and children. Children with lymphatic-hypoplastic diathesis are hydrolabile, are predisposed to allergic skin diseases ( eczema , dermatitis , pruritis ) and respiratory tract ( rhinitis , pharyngitis , tonsillitis , adenoids , chronic recurrent otitis , frequent pneumonia ).
Lymphatic-hypoplastic diathesis is a state of weak adaptation to the requirements of the external environment from the side of lymphatic and adenoid tissues, as well as the chromaffin system. The frequency of this anomaly of the constitution is about 3-6%. It is especially pronounced in children aged 3-7 years. Many signs of lymphatic-hypoplastic diathesis are similar to exudative diathesis (see). The clinical picture of lymphatic-hypoplastic diathesis is made up of the appearance, the peculiarity of the state of the lymphoid and adenoid tissue and the hypoplasia of certain endocrine glands. Children are pasty, pale; muscularity is sluggish, the general tone is lowered. A significant ubiquity of the lymph nodes is determined. On the side of the oropharynx there is an expansion of the adenoid tissue, an increase and loosening of the tonsils, a proliferation of lymph nodes on the pharyngeal wall, a coarsely expressed granularity, an increase in the follicles and the papillae circumvallatae of the tongue. Some children have an increase in the thymus gland, determined by percussion and radiology.The
On the mucosal side, a tendency to a more easy onset and prolonged course of rhinopharyngitis, otitis, tracheobronchitis, tonsillitis, as well as conjunctivitis, blepharitis is characteristic.
From the heart is noted the presence of functional atonic noises. The development of the external genitalia is somewhat delayed.
In children older than three years in the blood there is a somewhat increased content of leukocytes with lymphocytosis (more than 45%), monocytosis and relative neutropenia. Arterial pressure in them is usually low. For children diagnosed with lymphatic-hypoplastic diathesis, the instability of water metabolism and chloride exchange is very characteristic, which causes a rapid drop in their weight in diseases. The secretion of gastric juice is of an inert type. Children are sluggish, apathetic, give a slow reaction to the environment. Tendon reflexes in them are lowered. Children with lymphatic-hypoplastic diathesis can be referred to the so-called weak, unbalanced, lowered excitable type.
In the section, they find adrenal hypoplasia with a weak development of the medulla, insufficient development of paraganglia and the entire chromaffin system.
The smaller adaptation of children suffering from lymphatic-hypoplastic diathesis to harmful influences of the environment requires, on the one hand, their protection from strong influences, and on the other hand careful cauterization and training. In the presence of an enlarged thymus gland, there are phenomena of stridor, asthmatic-like symptoms, severe shock conditions, fainting and even sudden death may occur (see Status thymico-lymphaticus). Given the hydrolysis of children with lymphatic-hypoplastic diathesis, their reduced tolerance to fats, the diet should be built on a reasonable restriction of fat in food, on the elimination of substances rich in water and carbohydrates. Of great importance are the correct organization of the regime, raising the general tone, exercise, as well as water procedures.