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Lyotropic rows

Lyotropic rows (from the Greek. Lуо - dissolve and trope - change) are rows of ions, arranged according to the degree of their influence on the properties of the solvent (mainly water). Such are the lyotropic series of ions located according to their regularly increasing or decreasing influence on: 1) viscosity and surface tension, 2) solubility, 3) swelling of high-molecular substances (proteins, pectin, agar, starch, etc.) and starching of their aqueous solutions, 4 a) their salting out and coacervation; 5) the resistance of colloids to coagulation. Lyotropic series are known for the hemolyzing effect on erythrocytes, for suppressing the excitability of muscles and nerves, etc. The lyotropic series of inorganic anions are the most studied.

The differences in the lyotropic action in the series of singly and doubly charged cations of metals of the main subgroups of groups I and II of the periodic system of DI Mendeleev are less clearly expressed. The lyotropic series of anions were established by the Chamberlain (N. Hofmeister), who studied salting out albumin with sodium salts of various acids (the so-called HomeMaster series). The existence of lyotropic series is explained by the different hydrability of ions, which take away water molecules from particles of dissolved substances. The degree of hydration of the ions in the series above decreases from left to right.

The sequence of ions in the lyotropic series is not strictly constant and may vary depending on the conditions (solution pH, salt concentration, temperature).