Lipemia is the content of fatty substances (lipids) in the blood, hyperlipemia - their increased content. Normal plasma contains 0.4-0.7% lipids. When their number exceeds 1%, the plasma and serum become turbid, milky appearance, and whole blood - chocolate shade. Physiological hyperlipemia occurs after eating, especially after food rich in fat (lasts 8-10 hours), and during pregnancy. Pathological hyperlipemia is observed in some diseases of the liver and kidneys, diabetes, anemia, fasting, hypothyroidism, as well as poisoning with chloroform , alcohol, phosphorus .
Lipemia (from the Greek. Lipos - fat and haima - blood; synonym for hyperlipemia) - high blood fat. In a healthy organism on an empty stomach of all lipids in the blood plasma contains about 600 mg%. Blood lipids are a complex mixture of phospholipids (200 mg%), cholesterol and its esters (190 mg%), neutral fats (150 mg%), and free fatty acids (60 mg%). Under physiological conditions, lipemia occurs as early as 3-4 hours after a meal rich in fats; reaches a maximum after 6 hours, after which the fat content returns to its original level.
Lipemia occurs with changes in the functional state of the body (pregnancy, fasting); may be the result of slow removal of lipids from the bloodstream, disruption of the normal speed of their synthesis and decay. Lipemia also occurs in various pathological conditions of the body - in diabetes, obstructive jaundice, nephrosis, pancreatitis, hypothyroidism, xanthomatosis and atherosclerosis; with bleeding and bleeding, with severe anemia caused by poisoning with various substances (benzene, chloroform, pyridine, phenylhydrazine, phosphorus); in chronic alcoholism.
In severe lipemia, blood plasma acquires a milky white cloudy color. In the case of food lipemia, the administration of heparin leads to plasma clearing. In the blood plasma of a healthy organism, there is a constant relationship between different lipids. With lipemia, all the above-mentioned lipid fractions increase. However, a number of pathological conditions of the organism are characterized by a shift in their ratios. In atherosclerosis and diabetes, a shift in cholesterol / phospholipid ratio is established.
Lipemia develops as a result of excess consumption of foods rich in fats. Such lipemia is characterized by a high content of chylomicrons — a coarse-dispersed emulsion — lipids. Neutral fats and other lipids circulate in the blood primarily as complex compounds, mainly with proteins called lipoproteins (see). As a result of the transformation of chylomicrons, high-density lipoproteins arise.