The engineering industry is a branch of the national economy, engaged in the manufacture of equipment, vehicles, automotive and tractor industries and other mechanisms. The main shops in the engineering industry are foundry, forge, thermal, mechanical and mechanical assembly.
In the foundry industry, the process of obtaining parts is associated with the manufacture of the necessary forms and pouring them with molten metal (earth, metal, or chill, casting, and casting under pressure). In foundries, materials are prepared for smelting and loaded into furnaces, metal smelting, production and pouring into molds, preparation of molding and core earth, preparation of molds and cores, knocking out products from molds, chipping and cleaning products.
All these processes are accompanied by the release of dust, as well as toxic and irritating gases (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, acrolein, nitrogen dioxide, etc.). When knocking and cleaning the casting, noise and vibration occur. When observing smelting metal and pouring it into molds, workers are exposed to high temperatures and radiant energy. All this has an adverse effect on the health of workers; it can cause acute and chronic occupational poisoning and diseases (for example, foundry fever).Go
In forging shops, the main factors that act as a hazard are high temperature and infrared radiation, high physical exertion, high level of noise and vibration of percussion.
In the shops of thermal and electrolytic processing of metals, the main occupational hazards are high temperature with infrared radiation, as well as the action of toxic vapors and gases when processing products in cyanide baths (see Electroplating shop ).
In the shops of metal machining, the main adverse factors are noise (including high-frequency), vibrations, and the possibility of mechanical injuries to the worker. The mineral oils that make up the lubricating fluids cause prolonged contact with skin and cause folliculitis and dermatitis. Maceration of the skin and dermatitis cause used in these shops soda ash solutions in a concentration exceeding 2%.
In the assembly shop, occupational hazards are the effect on the body of aerosols of paints (red lead, greens, crowns) and their solvents ; exhaust gases generated during engine testing; the effect of bright light when welding , dust , high noise.
All of these occupational hazards have an adverse effect on the health of workers, can cause acute and chronic poisoning and disease. Therefore, in all workshops of the engineering industry, measures are taken to improve the workplace in conjunction with preventive measures.Go
Wellness activities. The fight against occupational hazards goes both along the path of improving and improving technological operations and equipment (for example, using automation), and along the way of improving the workplace microclimate (using supply and exhaust ventilation, shielding and water protection of the worker in hot workshops, and dust at the place of their formation, noise reduction, etc.). In the foundry, the replacement of earth with fast-drying liquid mixtures is widely used, injection molding and chill casting are introduced into metal molds. Sandblast cleaning of casting is replaced by hydraulic, hydro-abrasive and cleaning using a spark discharge in a liquid medium. The forging shop converts heating furnaces from solid, liquid and gas fuels to induction electrical heating, replaces steam hammers with hydraulic presses, and reduces the physical load of the worker due to the introduction of mechanization. Cyanic and lead baths are equipped in shelters for heat treatment of metals with local suction of hazardous products, special attention is paid to shielding and isolating the worker from installations with high-frequency currents, and measures are being taken to increase the electrical safety of all operations in this workshop. In the shops of metal machining, oil cooling of parts is replaced with emulsion or anti-corrosion liquids that do not contain toxic substances (mineral oils, soda ash), equipment of machine tools with exhaust ventilation interlocked with a trigger mechanism, fencing and protective guards. In the mechanical assembly workshops, attention is paid to local and general ventilation, as well as to the equipment of special rooms for testing internal combustion engines.
In all the workshops of the machine-building industry, great attention should be paid to the workers' personal hygiene, their working clothes (see Clothing, protective clothing), eye protection (see Goggles, protective clothing), as well as regular preventive medical examinations and the organization of dispensaries at plants.
See also Hot workshops.
The engineering industry is a combination of a number of industries (heavy transport engineering, automobile and tractor industry, shipbuilding, and many others).
- Forging and pressing production
- Heat treatment of metal
- Metal machining
- Metal grinding
- Mechanical assembly shops
- Intrashop transport