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Massage

Massage (French massage) is an active therapeutic method, which consists in applying to the body surface dosed mechanical stimuli with the help of various methodically performed special techniques performed by a massaging hand or special apparatus.

Massage is a method of treatment and prophylaxis, consisting in applying metered mechanical stimuli to the body surface through a series of special techniques. Massage is used for hygienic, therapeutic and prophylactic purposes, as well as in sports .

Physiological effect of massage

Massage has a diverse effect on the body, causing complex reflex reactions of all tissues, organs and systems. Massage has a pronounced effect on the central and peripheral nervous system. So, by changing the nature, strength, duration of massage exposure, one can reduce or increase the general excitability, strengthen weakened and revive lost reflexes, improve the function of the pathways, speed up nerve regeneration when it is damaged, weaken or stop pain. The skin under the influence of massage is made elastic, elastic, its resistance to temperature and mechanical effects increases, the exchange function improves. In the muscles, under the action of massage, the elasticity of the muscle fibers increases, the contractile function increases, the tone increases, the redox processes are enhanced, which leads to faster recovery of the muscles after increased physical exertion and to a decrease in the developed hypotrophy.

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Massage helps to improve the blood supply to the joints and tissues surrounding the joint , strengthen the ligament-ligament apparatus, increase joint mobility, accelerate resorption of effusion, as well as pathological deposits in the periarticular tissues. Massage has a great effect on the circulatory and lymphatic systems. Causing expansion of the capillaries, massage contributes to the abundant blood supply not only of the massaged area, but also reflexively and tissues at a great distance from it; blood flow through the arteries is facilitated and its outflow through the veins is accelerated, the tonic and motor functions of the blood vessels are improved, the lymph flow is accelerated. The effect of massage on the blood is expressed in an increase in the content of hemoglobin and red blood cells . Under the influence of massage, various changes in metabolism occur; gas exchange increases, release of nitrogenous slags increases.

The basis of the action of some types of massage is the connection of certain areas of the skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscles with internal organs; During the massage of these zones, the function of the corresponding internal organs (reflex-segmental massage) can change.

Massage can be common, when the whole body is massaged, and local, when one part is massaged, for example, the foot , hand, etc.

The physiological effect of massage . The determining role in the mechanism of the physiological action of massage belongs to the nervous system. An example of the opening of the neuro-reflex action of massage is the possibility of using various massage techniques to induce changes in the functional activity of various tissues, as well as internal organs (heart, stomach, intestines, etc.) through the afferent system of the skin, muscles and other tissues. Of great importance in the mechanism of action of the massage is also an adjustable CNS humoral factor. Under the influence of the massage, tissue hormones that take part in the transmission of nerve impulses are released. At the place of use, the massage also has a mechanical effect, enhancing the movement of tissue fluids (lymph, blood), causing displacement and stretching of tissues (with scars, adhesions) and other changes.

Massage has a diverse physiological effect on the body. For example, the effect of massage on the nervous system is through mechanical stimulation of the receptor apparatus of the skin, as well as deep tissues and organs.

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Depending on the place of application, the nature, strength and duration of the massage effect, the functional state of the cortex and subcortical brain changes, the general nervous excitability decreases or increases, the trophic function of the nervous system improves. Massage has a profound effect on the peripheral nervous system: it weakens or stops pain, improves nerve conduction, accelerates the process of regeneration. The effect of massage on the skin is to cleanse it from the detached horny scales of the epidermis, to improve the secretory function of the sweat and sebaceous glands, to enhance the arterialization of the skin and metabolic processes in it; on the muscular system - in increasing the elasticity of muscle fibers, their contractile function, in enrichment with oxygen, in enhancing redox processes, which leads to a reduction in muscle hypotrophy and accelerated recovery of their performance after increased physical activity. Massage has a significant effect on the joints, improving their blood supply, accelerating the resorption of articular effusion, as well as pathological deposits in the periarticular tissues. Massage has a pronounced direct and reflex effect on the local and general circulation. Causing expansion of the capillaries, massage contributes to the abundant blood supply not only of the massaged area, but also reflexively and tissues at a great distance from it. Massage facilitates the advancement of blood through the arteries and accelerates its outflow through the veins, and also improves the tonic and vasomotor functions of the vessels. Massage has a significant effect on the general metabolism, increasing the release of nitrogenous substances, improving gas exchange in the tissues.

Massotherapy

Therapeutic massage is used for various diseases only as prescribed by a doctor.

General contraindications to the appointment of massage : extensive purulent diseases of the skin and soft tissues, the active stage of pulmonary and bone and articular tuberculosis; systemic lesions and tumors of the nervous system; all inflammatory diseases in the acute stage; chronic diseases of the stomach and intestines with a tendency to bleed; hypertension (stage III), circulatory failure (IIB and stage III), migrating thrombophlebitis , malignant tumors.