Neuroleptics (synonym: neuroplegic drugs, large tranquilizers) are substances that eliminate the symptoms of psychosis (delirium, hallucinations) and cause a kind of soothing effect.
Among the neuroleptics, phenothiazine derivatives - aminazine, (see), mepazine (see), propazine (see), trifazine (see), etaperazine (see), rauwolfia alkaloids - reserpine (see) and others . derivatives of butyrophenone - haloperidol, droperidol. Neuroleptic drugs can eliminate feelings of fear, anxiety, emotional tension, anxiety, aggressiveness.
Neuroleptic drugs enhance the effect of narcotic, hypnotic , analgesic and anesthetic substances, have antiemetic effect, reduce motor activity and cause relaxation of skeletal muscles. Many neuroleptic drugs have a hypothermic effect, have adrenolytic, anticholinergic, antispasmodic and antihistamine properties, cause a drop in blood pressure. The effect on vegetative functions is most pronounced in aminazine and reserpine; in triftazine and haloperidol these properties manifest themselves insignificantly.The
The most often neuroleptic drugs are used to treat various mental illnesses ( schizophrenia , manic phase of a circular psychosis, a state of psychomotor agitation, senile, presenile and alcoholic psychoses, mental illness accompanied by excitement, fear, insomnia, stress). Neuroleptics are also used in surgery in preparation for surgery as sedatives, to enhance the effects of narcotic and analgesic substances, as anti-shock drugs; in therapy - for the treatment of hypertension (reserpine), and also as soothing and anti-emetics agents for X-ray and chemotherapy of malignant tumors; in obstetrics - for the treatment of toxicosis of pregnancy; in dermatology - with skin itching.
When using neuroleptic drugs, side effects may occur: extrapyramidal disorders ( Parkinsonism ), depressive states. Phenothiazine derivatives can also cause changes in the blood (leukopenia, agranulocytosis), liver dysfunction, allergic reactions. If side effects occur, the dose is reduced or antipsychotic drugs are withdrawn; at the phenomena of parkinsonism appoint cycloid and other means. To remove from the state of depression prescribe psychostimulants - meridil (see), pyridrol (see), phenamine (see). In the case of hypotension , which occurs when using aminazina, you can not use epinephrine (the pressure can go down even more), you must enter mezaton or norepinephrine.
Neuroleptic drugs are contraindicated in case of poisoning with narcotic, hypnotics and analgesics . The derivatives of phenothiazine should not be used for liver and kidney disease, changes in the blood.