Bee sting (apitoxin) is a secret secreted by the filamentous gland of the stinging apparatus of the worker bee. Bee sting contains biologically active protein (melitton), enzymes (hyaluronidase and lecithinase A), free amino acids, histamine and other substances. Bee venom has an irritating anti-inflammatory, anticholinergic effect, lowers blood clotting , the amount of cholesterol in the blood, increases the hemoglobin content. Bee venom is used in rheumatism , nonspecific infectious polyarthritis, myositis, radiculitis , neuralgia, in allergic diseases (urticaria, bronchial asthma), in migraine, trophic ulcers , obliterating endarteritis , thrombophlebitis , etc. ointments, by electrophoresis .
The most commonly used drugs are bee venom.
Venapiolin (Venapiolinum) is a sterile oil solution of bee venom. Venapiolin-1 (KF-1) contains 2-3 conventional units of bee venom in 1 ml, and vecapiolin-2 (KF-2) is less active. The drugs are injected under the skin of 0.5-1.5 ml. The course of treatment is 15-30 injections.Go
Toxapinum (Toxapinum) is an aqueous or oily solution of bee venom (1 ml contains 6 mg of bee venom), injected under the skin or into muscles, starting from 0.2-0.3 ml and increasing the dose to 1 ml. Injections do in 2-3 places in 0.2-0.3 ml in each place every other day or daily. The course of treatment is 15-20 injections. Toxapine can be entered by electrophoresis from the positive pole.
Apisarthron (Apisarthron) is produced in the form of powder in bottles containing 0.0001 and 0.001 g of dry bee venom with sodium chloride. Solutions are prepared ex tempore. Outwardly used in the form of an ointment containing, in addition to bee venom, 10% methyl salicylate and 1% mustard essential oil.
Virapin (Virapin) produced in ampoules containing 0.002 g of bee venom and novocaine and isotonic sodium chloride solution - up to 1 ml. Injections are made intracutaneously in the region of the painful focus 1 time in 2-5 days, starting from 0.05 ml and increasing the dose to 0.25-0.5 ml. The course of treatment is 5-10 injections. An ointment containing 0.15 mg of bee venom in 1 g is rubbed into the skin 1-2 times a day.
In case of overdose with bee venom or in case of hypersensitivity to it, headaches, nausea , vomiting , urticaria, pain in the heart area, heartbeat , increased heart rate, lower back pain, joints, convulsions , fainting, etc. may occur. Concomitant bee venom preparations are contraindicated in infectious diseases, tuberculosis, diseases of the liver, kidneys, pancreas, diabetes, purulent diseases, blood diseases, diseases of the cardiovascular system with symptoms of decompensation and mental diseases. It should be borne in mind that women (especially during menstruation and during pregnancy), children and the elderly have an increased sensitivity to bee venom.
Bee venom (apitoxin) is a secret secreted by the filamentous gland of the stinging apparatus of a working bee.
Bee venom is a thick, colorless liquid with a characteristic odor and a bitter, burning taste. It hardens rapidly in air (dry residue is 40%) and can be kept in dry form by childbirth. In aqueous solution, as well as under the influence of digestive enzymes and oxidizing agents, bee venom is quickly inactivated. Bee sting contains biologically active protein melittin, enzymes hyaluronidase and lecithinase A, free amino acids, histamine (up to 1%), nucleic, formic, hydrochloric and orthophosphoric acids (up to 25% of acids are volatile and are lost during drying), fats, steroid-like substances, volatile oils, Mg, Cu, Ca. Carbohydrates, Na, K, Fe are not found in bee venom.
When stinging a bee allocates 0.2-0.3 mg of bee venom (1 conventional unit). The lethal dose is in the range of 500-1000 stings (about 0.2 g). However, there are cases of hypersensitivity to bee venom (idiosyncrasy), when one or several stings can cause a severe allergic reaction or even death. When exposed to isolated living cells or unicellular organisms, bee venom causes their death and dissolution of protoplasm (cytolysis). In addition to toxic and irritant effects, bee venom has the ability to stimulate activity
pituitary and adrenal glands; this explains its anti-inflammatory activity. Bee venom has an anticholinergic effect, reduces blood clotting. In the experiment, bee venom enhances contractions of isolated smooth and striated muscles.
Bee venom is used for rheumatic diseases, nonspecific infectious polyarthritis, deforming spondyloarthrosis, neuritis, trophic ulcers, endarteriosis, bronchial asthma, hypertension of I and II stages, etc. Bee venom can be used: 1) by stinging bees; 2) parenterally in the form of solutions; 3) in the composition of ointments, liniments; 4) by electrophoresis.
The most commonly used drugs are bee venom. Venapiolin-1 (Venapiolinum-1) is a sterile oil solution of bee venom, in 1 ml - 2-3 conventional units of poison. Venapiolin-2 is less active. The drugs are injected under the skin of 0.5-1.5 ml. The course of treatment is 15-30 injections. Toxapinum is similar to venapiolin; it is injected under the skin or into the muscles, ranging from 0.2-0.3 ml and increasing the dose to 1 ml. Virapin (Virapin) produced in Czechoslovakia is produced in ampoules containing 0.002 g apitoxin and novocaine and isotonic sodium chloride solution - up to 1 ml. The solution is injected intracutaneously at 0.05-0.5 ml. A similar drug - Apizarthron (Apisarthron) - produced in the GDR. Vials of the drug contain 0.0001 and 0.001 g of dry bee venom. Virapin and apizartron also produced in the form of ointments.
With idiosyncrasy, to bee venom or overdose it can be observed headaches, nausea, vomiting, urticaria, asthma, low blood pressure, fever, erythrocytosis, hemolysis. Bee venom is contraindicated in idiosyncrasy to it, infectious diseases, tuberculosis, diseases of the liver, kidneys, pancreas, purulent diseases, blood diseases, diseases of the cardiovascular system with symptoms of decompensation.