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First aid

First aid is an urgent implementation of treatment and preventive measures required in case of accidents and sudden diseases. Depending on the circumstances and the specific situation, the first aid may be provided by doctors, paramedical personnel, and also in order of self - help and mutual aid, people who do not have special honey. preparation. Each health worker and any medical institution, including pharmacies, are required by law to provide first aid.

First aid is the start of treatment; all further course of the disease, and often its outcome, depends on its timely and proper delivery.

First aid is necessary for wounds, bruises, fractures, sprains, burns, food intoxication, frostbite, poisoning, electric shock, thermal shock , asphyxia, shock, etc .; in acute cardiovascular diseases, bleeding; diseases combined by the common term " acute abdomen "; strangulated hernia; acute neurological and mental diseases (acute disorders of cerebral circulation, seizures - epilepsy , hysteria, etc.), etc.

Proper organization of first aid requires the constant readiness of the appropriate forces and means to provide it. At industrial enterprises, first aid should be as close as possible to the place of possible occurrence of an accident or sudden illness, for which medical assistant first-aid posts are created in some of the largest workshops (see). In the remaining workshops for the provision of first aid, sanitary posts with first-aid kits - dressings , tires, and medicines should be organized (see. First aid). First aid should be provided during the entire time of the enterprise, its quality in night shifts should not decrease.

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The organization of first aid in an industrial enterprise consists of the following stages: 1) preparation for the provision of assistance and 2) direct assistance.

Preparing for assistance provides for the advance organization of everything necessary for first aid in each workshop, workshop, etc. In the designated areas available (if possible in the center of the workshop) should always be a stretcher. In the shops where electric shocks are possible, you should also have large rubber overshoes, thick rubber gloves, a hook with an iron tip and insulating handles and special tongs to release those affected by the current. In all workshops there should be signs of the location of the health center and announcements telling who to contact in case of accidents and sudden diseases, indicating the method of communication (telephone number, etc.). Preparation for assistance should be carried out taking into account the specific working conditions so that, irrespective of the severity and nature of the damage, first aid is provided as quickly as possible. In enterprises, workers and employees are trained in first aid in safety classes.

The organization of first aid in transport is also based on specific conditions, depending on the type of transport. There are first-aid posts at railway stations, one of the tasks of which is to provide first aid to passengers and train crews in case of illnesses or accidents along the line. The first-aid posts that provide first aid are organized in aerial, river and sea ports. In trains, airplanes, ships, there must be first-aid kits containing everything necessary for first aid.

In the preparation and in the direct rendering of first aid, an important role belongs to the paramedical personnel, who are most close to the shops and find themselves at the scene earlier than the doctor. The same situation occurs in rural areas and, in particular, in the conditions of agricultural production. The role of nursing staff is also determined by the tasks of first aid, which are assigned to health centers (see) and first-aid and obstetric points (see).

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The important role of the paramedical staff in providing first aid in case of accidents requires that they necessarily know the general rules of first aid in case of accidents and the most common sudden illnesses.

The essential role belongs to the average medical staff in training the general public in the simplest measures for providing first aid in case of accidents and sudden diseases.

First aid is provided directly at the scene using the simplest honey. equipment or improvised means.

The scope and sequence of first aid measures for injuries is determined by the type of damage and its severity.

First of all, they carry out measures to restore the vital functions of the body - artificial respiration (see) when breathing stops, closed heart massage with cardiac arrest (see Restoration of the body ). Some emergency conditions in some cases require emergency operational benefits primitive household tools at hand: tracheotomy (see) with obstruction of the upper respiratory tract; puncture of the pleura (see Chest) with valvular pneumothorax . These activities should be carried out as a last resort to saving lives and should be performed by medical staff only if they have the necessary knowledge and training.

First aid must include measures to prevent and combat shock (see). In case of fractures (see), they are immobilized using standard or improvised tires, which reduces pain, protects from secondary displacement of fragments, injury to surrounding soft tissues, and makes it possible to transport the injured to a hospital. Proper transportation is an important first-aid point. Patients with damage to the lower limbs are better to transport lying down; with damage to the spine , with fractures of the pelvis - on the shield back down, with a chest injury - in a semi-sitting position.

To combat arterial bleeding, apply a finger pressing on an artery, applying a hemostat (see a tourniquet) on a limb, strong bending of a limb in a joint, etc.

First aid for open injuries is the imposition of an aseptic dressing on the wound. For this purpose it is best to use an individual dressing bag (see). With an open pneumothorax, first of all you need to seal the wound, closing it with the shell of an individual dressing bag. Aseptic bandage for fractures of the small bones of the foot and hand, rib fracture partly provides immobilization and stops the bleeding. The scope of first aid measures also includes the introduction of tetanus toxoid in open trauma.

In some cases, the primary task of first aid is the cessation of the traumatic factor: extinguishing burning clothes, disconnecting the injured person with an object under electric shock, removing the active substance during a chemical burn or radioactive injury, etc. First aid for frostbite is the most rapid warming affected area by gentle rubbing or otherwise. See Burns, Frostbite.

First aid for poisoning should be aimed at removing the poison from the body of the victim or neutralizing it and maintaining the vital functions of the body. In case of poisoning with vapors and gases, the victim must be brought to fresh air when taking the poison inside - wash the stomach, etc.

On the organization of first aid on the battlefield - see Medical assistance in the military field. See also Asphyxia , Dislocations , Bleeding, Electrotrauma , table in volume III “Emergency medical measures for surgical diseases” and “Emergency treatment for diseases of internal organs”.

First aid - a set of urgent treatment and preventive measures necessary in case of accidents, sudden diseases and combat damage.

The scope of first aid includes actions and techniques that can be performed by a person who does not have special medical training. The duration and course of the disease, the restoration of working capacity, and in some cases the preservation of the life of the patient (victim) often depend on the timeliness and quality of first aid. Diseases (injuries) requiring first aid include: bleeding, wounds, fractures, sprains, sprains, bruises and other injuries, poisoning, burns, frostbite, electrical injuries, shock, asphyxiation, in particular as a result of drowning, etc. Objectives of first aid: 1) remove the injured from the situation that caused the accident (for example, remove it from the wreckage), stop the action of a harmful factor (give access to fresh air when poisoned with carbon monoxide, extinguish the flame, turn off trotravme etc.)..; 2) to eliminate the serious and dangerous for the patient condition (bleeding, asphyxia, shock); 3) eliminate the harmful effects of the situation (for example, move into a room, warm during frostbite); 4) to provide on-site specialized assistance (to make a bandage when injured, to impose a splint on a fracture, to pull a limb on bleeding).

According to the legislation existing in the USSR, every medical worker and any medical institution, including pharmacies, are obliged to provide first aid.

In cities for assistance in case of accidents (street disasters, severe injuries, burns, falls from height, electric shock and lightning, thermal and sunstrokes, poisoning by poisons, including carbon monoxide, asphyxiation of the sunken, extracted from the water, and sudden diseases, if they have arisen at work, in an institution, on the street, in public places) an ambulance is called. In case of severe diseases at home, the doctor of the district clinic is called during the day, and at night the doctor of the district emergency room (see Emergency and Emergency Care).

In rural areas, in such cases, they turn to a medical worker at the nearest medical facility (district hospital, first-aid station).

In some industrial enterprises, in agriculture, in fisheries, and logging, workers are dispersed in groups at a considerable distance from each other and from medical institutions. In this regard, specially trained sanaktivisty organize sanitary posts, in which the victim must be given first aid. There are first aid kits (dressings, tires, medicines), stretchers, etc. under the authority of sanitary posts.

In enterprises, workers and employees are trained in first aid in safety classes.

On the beaches, for the first aid to people in distress on the water, properly equipped water rescue stations and rescue posts are being built, with specially trained and trained swimmers. First-aid skills are brought up from childhood, while still in the pioneering organization, at school. Wide circles of the population are trained in the simplest measures for the provision of pre-medical first aid, as well as in the methods of providing self-help and mutual assistance in case of accidents and diseases. The organization of such classes is the responsibility of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, DOSAAF. Sanitary-educational propaganda serves the same purpose.

On the organization of first aid on the battlefield, see Medical assistance (in the military field).