Speech disorders are congenital and acquired. Various reasons can cause one or another defect of speech in the pre-speech stage of development of the child. Speech disorders may result from pathological changes in the peripheral organs of speech or lesions of the central nervous system of various kinds. Speech disorders may be major disorders or secondary. For the emergence of sound (motor) speech, you must have a sufficiently high level of auditory perception. Deafness (see) and even hearing loss (see) of varying degrees can negatively affect the development of speech in a child. Speech disorders that are not associated with deafness or hearing loss (logopathy) can occur with alalia (see), tabloid lesions (see Anartria, Dysarthria), tongue-tied (see), and certain forms of stuttering (see). Nastiness, in which there is the nasal pronunciation of all sounds with a change in the articulation of most of them, is due to the splitting of the hard and soft palate .Go
Aphasia (see) caused by organic lesions of certain areas of the brain that are important for speech functions. The pathology of speech can be expressed in violation of its pace and rhythm. Slow speech - bradilalia, bradyarthria - occurs as a result of extrapyramidal disorders. Tachilalia - the acceleration of the rate of speech - happens when emotional excitement, neurotic states, with subcortical lesions. Disturbance of speech fluency is characteristic of stuttering, with trochee and tics . In children, often with deep general exhaustion, mutism is noted - the absence of motor speech while preserving the inner (writing, reading). After a military trauma (contusion), a kind of transient disorder (deaf-and-dumb) sometimes occurs — surdomutism . Speech disorders in mental retardation are diverse and depend on the level of intelligence, the age of the patient, personality characteristics, physical development .
The study of speech should be combined with a full clinical examination. Special attention should be paid to the neuropsychic sphere, the state of the peripheral apparatus of speech and hearing . The study of speech should be multifaceted, as often a violation simultaneously covers various aspects of speech. For example, with defects in the motor side of speech, symptoms of a sensory and semantic nature can be expressed; stuttering is often combined with tongue-tied and other speech disorders; Tongue can be associated with a violation of the letter, spelling. Of great importance in the study of patients with speech disorders has a special psychological study.
Treatment . In accordance with the manifestations of a common disease and especially speech disorders, various treatment methods are used, including pharmacological, surgical (with clefts of the palate and lips), speech therapy (see Speech Therapy), and physiotherapy. Treatment should be comprehensive according to indications in each individual case.