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X-ray examination

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The best results in X-ray diagnostics are achieved with the correct combination of both main methods of X-ray examination - fluoroscopy and X-ray , using, if necessary, contrasting research methods. Especially valuable results can be obtained by combining in the process of polypositional examination of radiography and images in targeted projections, including the position of the patient on the side (lateroscopy and laterography) with the horizontal direction of the x-ray beam .

The most important advantage of X-ray imaging over X-ray fluoroscopy is that the radiation loads on the subjects and on the staff of X-ray rooms are much less.

With modern requirements for radioprotection (see), it is necessary under all circumstances to limit the use of X-rays in the process of performing X-ray diagnostic procedures. It is especially necessary to protect the area of ​​the gonads (gonads), given that, in addition to exposure to the skin, radiation affects the internal organs, including the gonads, and the latter's absorption even of small doses is highly undesirable. Therefore, it is necessary for all types of X-ray studies to limit the irradiation field to the optimal size by using tubes and diaphragms, and to protect all other parts of the body from unused radiation, paying particular attention to the protection of the gonads (especially in children and people of childbearing age) with protective leaded rubber . The use of an aluminum filter with a thickness of at least 1 mm during X-ray examination is a prerequisite for safety, since in this case the softest part of the radiation that, in the absence of the filter, would be absorbed by the skin, is filtered (absorbed by the filter). When working with radiation of increased rigidity, it is advisable to increase the filter thickness to 2-3 mm. The skin focal length, i.e. the distance from the focus of the X-ray tube to the skin surface, should not be less than 35 cm.

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When recording and admission of patients for X-ray examination, it is necessary to find out whether they have not been subjected to X-ray examination in the near future, accompanied by significant radiation exposure. Such X-ray studies include multiple images of the skull , lumbosacral spine and pelvis, tomography of these areas, as well as most x-ray methods using contrast agents , in particular angiography (see), bronchography (see), hepatolienography (liver exam - hepatography and spleen –yenography), irrigoscopy (see), urography (see), cholecystography (see). These and similar radiographic studies, accompanied by the achievement of the maximum permissible dose (see) radiation, can be repeated no earlier than after 6 weeks. Special attention from the nurses requires monitoring and control over the thorough preparation of patients for complex x-ray studies using contrast agents. Instructions for the preparation of patients for X-ray examination, developed by the radiologist, should be available in each x-ray room . Their strict implementation ensures the success of radiological research and relieves patients and staff from the need for unnecessary repeated studies.

The role of nursing and technical personnel in the production of basic X-ray methods varies. If, during translucence, the task is reduced mainly to ensuring the normal specified operating modes of the device and to observing the necessary measures of radioprotection, and the patient’s research work is entirely performed by the doctor performing the translucence, then during X -ray examination the role of the X-ray laboratory significantly increases, becomes more active and responsible.