Modern diagnostic X-ray machines allow, in addition to scanning and taking conventional images, to carry out fluorography (see) by attaching a special tripod-fluorograph. Stationary X-ray devices are also supplied with devices for tomography (see), kimografii and electroacromography. Introduction to the design of the X-ray apparatus of the system of electron-optical amplification (EOC) made it possible to apply not only filming for X-ray, processes in dynamics, but also X-ray television, which significantly reduced the radiation load on the patient and relieve the radiologist from having to look at the X-ray image in the dark on screen for translucence.
Therapeutic x-ray machines are used for radiation exposure to pathological lesions located on the skin or at a known depth. Apparatus used for superficial and deep radiotherapy (see). X-ray devices for deep therapy are intended either for static (stationary) or for mobile (rotational, pendulum, convergent) radiation. During mobile irradiation, a direct X-ray beam all the time passes through the pathological focus to be irradiated, and the external organs and the skin are irradiated alternately, which allows the required radiation doses to be delivered to deep-seated lesions while significantly cleansing the skin and superficial organs. In recent years, high-power isotope gamma plants, betatrons and linear accelerators creating electronic and bremsstrahlung radiation with a maximum energy of 5 to 40 MeV and a more favorable distribution of the absorbed dose in the patient's body have successfully competed with therapeutic X-ray machines for deep therapy. In some therapeutic X-ray machines, a dose relay is used instead of a time relay, which automatically shuts off high voltage when a given dose is reached. The X-ray unit includes x-ray filters (see) for more uniform X-ray radiation and a set of tubes that fix the focus-skin distance and limit the radiation field of a certain size. In addition, pressure tubes reduce the blood supply to the skin, which lowers its sensitivity to x-rays and reduces the risk of damage during radiotherapy.