Retinitis is an inflammation of the retina; usually occurs simultaneously with the inflammatory process in the choroid (see Choroiditis ). Non-inflammatory diseases of the retina, which are based on vascular lesions, metabolic disorders, blood diseases and other diseases are called retinopathy.
Retinopathy is a complication of a number of diseases, including diabetes mellitus, from the retinal side of the eye, in which exudate, hemorrhages, bloodstains, vascular proliferation, or pigment anomaly of the yellow spot appear. Veins dark, overflowed. Distinct aneurysmal dilations of capillaries are very characteristic. In the later stages, the aneurysmal formations grow together with the intra-net hemorrhages and exudates surrounding them. At the same time, convoluted capillaries and dilated veins and venules are noted. The complication depends on the duration and compensation of diabetes.
Treatment of the underlying disease.
In diseases of the retina, patients complain of visual impairment, the appearance of scotoma (see), loss of parts of the visual field . Only when examining the fundus by an oculist is it possible to correctly assess the clinical picture of a retinal lesion.Go
Retinitis metastatic, septic occurs when a purulent infection is carried into the retinal vessels during sepsis or a purulent focus in the body. Simultaneously with a sharp decrease in visual acuity, multiple grayish-white foci and hemorrhages are found in the retina. It is necessary to treat the underlying disease.
Retinitis pseudoalbuminuric occurs as a result of vascular disorders with common infections and intoxications. The process is usually reversible. It is necessary to treat the underlying disease.
Retinitis external exudative (Coates disease) is observed more often in one eye in young people. May be complicated by secondary glaucoma (see), iridocyclitis (see), cataract (see). The etiology is unknown. The prognosis is unfavorable. Treatment is symptomatic.
Retinitis proliferating develops in various inflammatory processes that occur in the outcome of exudative chorioretinitis, injuries with hemorrhages in the retina, thrombosis of the central retinal vein, tuberculous periphlebitis, etc. The treatment of the underlying disease is necessary.
Retinitis with toxoplasmosis occurs in the form of central or peripheral exudative inflammation. Specific diagnosis and treatment, as with other forms of toxoplasmosis (see).
Retinopathy in hypertension is common; changes in the fundus allow us to judge the shape, severity and stage of hypertension. It is necessary to treat the underlying disease.
Retinopathy in diabetes mellitus is common and can lead to complete loss of vision. Changes in the fundus sometimes detected no earlier than 5-10 years from the onset of diabetes. It is necessary to treat the underlying disease.
Fig. 1 - 6. The fundus of the eye. Fig. 1. Tuberculous periflebitis of the retina. Fig. 2. Pseudoalbuminuric retinitis. Fig. 3. Hypertensive neuroretinopathy. Fig. 4. Renal neuroretinopathy. Fig. 5. Leukemic retinopathy. Fig. 6. External exudative retinopathy Coates.