Emergency medical care in the USSR is a special service in the community-based community care system, providing emergency medical care, and, if necessary, transporting patients and injured to hospital facilities.
There is a unified system for providing emergency medical care, which is carried out by stations and emergency medical services.
The area of emergency medical care and the rules for its calling are established by the health department and approved by the executive committees of the local Soviets of Working People's Deputies. Stations and emergency medical services are sent by medical personnel in case of accidents, poisoning, attempted suicide and murder; with life-threatening sudden illnesses (see Vital indications); at birth occurring on the street or in public places, as well as childbirth at home without medical care. In all these cases, ambulance teams are required to leave no later than 4 minutes. after the call is received.
In addition, medical personnel of emergency medical aid are sent for transportation to medical institutions of patients at the request of the treating doctors (with acute appendicitis, strangulated hernia, intestinal obstruction, perforated ulcer of the stomach and intestines, ectopic pregnancy, uterine bleeding, myocardial infarction and other diseases requiring urgent surgical or therapeutic care), as well as for the delivery of parturients and puerperas during normal delivery. The ambulance stations also organize transportation of newborns , including premature babies , together with their mother to specialized medical institutions and patients hospitalized in accordance with the planned procedure, who for health reasons need to be transported by ambulance .
The ambulance stations provide medical assistance, but do not systematically treat patients, station personnel are not allowed to issue disability sheets, forensic medical opinions (for example, alcohol intoxication), and any written information to patients or their relatives.The
Emergency measures, conducted directly on the scene, apart from diagnosis, first aid (giving oxygen, necessary injections, etc.), include measures to prevent shock, thromboembolism and other life-threatening conditions, as well as activities aimed at safety of its transportation to a hospital. Practical medical measures for emergency medical care - see articles on selected diseases, as well as tables "Emergency treatment for diseases of internal organs", "Emergency medical services for surgical diseases" (Appendix).
Specialized medical brigades are organized directly on the scene of the incident and on the way to provide prompt medical assistance, which allows rendering qualified medical care to the sick and injured, to expand the scope of medical and preventive measures in the provision of emergency medical care and to combine transportation with the treatment of patients.
There are specialized brigades for the treatment and prevention of thromboembolic diseases, shock and terminal conditions, for providing psycho-neurological care. In many large cities, centers for the control of thromboembolic diseases, with shock and terminal conditions, specialized infarcted departments have been established on the basis of clinical and city hospitals, where patients are admitted in extremely serious condition, bypassing the admission departments.
Specialized brigades are sent by the doctors of the ambulance and in some cases (when there is a special decision of local health authorities) at the request of district doctors.
The personnel of the specialized brigades directly in the machine make urgent interventions ( blood transfusion , stop bleeding, tracheotomy , artificial respiration, closed cardiac massage, etc.), and perform the necessary diagnostic tests (electrocardiogram removal, prothrombin index determination, bleeding time, etc.).
To carry out a complex of urgent interventions and diagnostic studies, cars on which brigades leave are equipped with the necessary equipment and medicines.
Expanding the volume of medical care at the scene and during transportation allowed to reduce the deaths in the delivery of patients to hospitals, significantly reduce the number of complications and reduce the mortality of patients with thromboembolic diseases.