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Athletics

Athletics includes walking, running, jumping and throwing, conducted according to special rules in the form of sports exercises. The main of them - running - affects the body most versatile, contributing to the development of skeletal muscles (mainly lower extremities), breathing apparatus, cardiovascular system , etc. The nature of the impact on the body of various types of running as a physical exercise depends on the size of the distance, pace of running and duration; it can be a typical exercise for speed (short-distance running - 60–200 m, at which muscle work is maximal), speed endurance exercise (middle-distance running –400–1500 m) or develop endurance - the body’s ability to work for a long time is small intensity (long and extra long distances). Walking is also an exercise in endurance. Jumping and throwing - speed-strength exercises, well develop speed, strength and coordination of movements, but compared to running and walking, less affect breathing and blood circulation . For versatile physical development , especially children, it is important to practice various types of athletics. Special classes of children in athletics can begin with 10-12 years, and the run - only for short distances.

Track and field athletics is one of the most popular sports, including exercises in running, walking, jumping and throwing, different in structure of movements and effects on the body.

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When running at short distances (60, 100 and 200 m), a short-term (from 6 to 30 sec.) Speed-strength work of maximum power is performed. Only up to 18% of oxygen demand is covered directly during this run; Anaerobic glycogenolysis prevails in muscles. After repeated running for 100–200 m in trained athletes, the pulse does not exceed 120–160 beats per minute, breathing 30–40 per minute, and the maximum pressure is 150–170 mm Hg. st.

Jumping (in height, length, with a pole, triple) and throwing (spears, disc, hammer, shot put) also belong to speed-strength exercises, they are distinguished by a complex coordination structure. The vegetative shifts after repeated repetitions of throwings and especially jumps are close to the changes observed during the speed run. When running at medium distances (800.1500 m) - working at a submaximal intensity and when running at long distances (3, 5, 10 km) - working at a high intensity is the ultimate stress of aerobic metabolism and largely anaerobic glycogenolysis. The pulse rate reaches 200 beats per minute. and more, respiration — 54–66 per minute, blood pressure — up to 190–220 mm Hg. st. When running at super-long (marathon) distances and race walking, moderate-power muscular work is performed under conditions of relatively stable oxygen consumption. There is a sharp drop in blood sugar (sometimes up to 40 mg%). After running, relatively low pulse shifts (up to 150–180 beats per minute) and blood pressure (150–180 mm Hg) with a long recovery period are determined.

During and after running at different distances, according to teleelectrocardiography, 55 trained athletes are relatively moderate and rapidly transient ECG changes: increased rhythm, shortening P — Q and QRS — T, increasing voltage R and T. Heart size after the finish of running decreases. With particular stress in running (often less prepared), there is a significant decrease or inversion of the T3 wave (sometimes T2 and T3), a decrease in the S segment — T, an elongation of P — Q and QHS — T, a decrease in the voltage of the R wave (Fig.); radiometric is determined by the increase in the size of the heart.

Systematic exercises in athletics are well developed respiratory apparatus, as evidenced by the high vital capacity of the lungs, maximum voluntary pulmonary ventilation, and resistance to hypoxia noted in athletes. More than half of runners for long and extra long distances have an increase in heart size (hypertrophy and tonogenic regulatory dilatation); they often also find physiological bradycardia and hypotension.

Track and field athletics is the most important section of the program on physical education in educational institutions and the TRP complex, its elements are used in general physical training in any sport, in group health education with adults, and also in physical therapy. Rationing loads in sports activities and athletics competitions is carried out in accordance with age, sex and fitness. Primary education starts at 10—11 years. See also Sport.


A teleelectrocardiogram taken in the process of repeated medium-distance running is good (a) and insufficiently (b) trained athletes: 1 - baseline data; 2 - while running.