Tobacco is a plant from the family of the nightshade. In the wild, tobacco grows in America and on some of the Pacific Islands. In many countries, various types of tobacco are grown on special plantations, from which, after processing, tobacco products (cigars, cigarettes, cigarettes, etc.) are manufactured.
There are more than 70 varieties of tobacco, which differ in their strength and effect on the human body.
The chemical composition of tobacco is complex. Its leaves contain nicotine, nicotine, nicotinin, nicotellin, pyrolidine, ammonia, nitrogenous compounds, nitrous, malic, citric, oxalic acids, ash, etc. Nicotine is the main toxic substance of tobacco (see). Tobacco products contain from 0.7 to 5%, and in green leaves - from 2 to 9% nicotine.Go
When smoking tobacco, it is dry distilled to form new products. In chemical analysis of tobacco smoke, carbon dioxide , carbon monoxide, hydrocyanic acid , wood alcohol, ammonia, soot, nicotine and related alkaloids, pyridine bases, organic acids, etc. were found in it. Recently, the presence of carcinogenic hydrocarbons in tobacco smoke (3 , 4-benzpyrene), with the introduction of which in experimental animals they may develop cancerous tumors. Statistics have shown a direct link between smoking and lung cancer in humans.
Analyzing the smoke of various brands of filterless cigarettes, they established the presence of radioactivity in tobacco smoke. In particular, a significant amount of polonium-210 was found. The half-life of polonium-210 is 138 days. Lingering on the mucous membrane covering the bronchi, especially with frequent smoking, polonium plays an important role in the appearance of chronic bronchitis and malignant lung tumors.
When smoking tobacco, various chronic diseases of the oral cavity, tongue, larynx, pharynx, bronchus can appear; cases of tuberculosis are increasing. Smoking of the nervous system especially affects the nervous and cardiovascular systems, contributing to the development of neuritis, vascular spasms with the subsequent development of hypertension and atherosclerosis. Intermittent claudication (obliterating endarteritis ) often occurs in malignant smokers.
The negative effect of tobacco smoking on the mucous membranes of the esophagus , stomach, intestines (catarrhal and spastic states) has also been established. When smoking tobacco, there is a decrease in sexual potency in men and in sexual desire in women. Nicotine inhibits the centers of erection and strengthens the neurasthenic state. In women who smoke, smoking tobacco is detrimental to the development of the fetus.
An individual conversation with a smoker about the harmful effects of tobacco is the main method of treatment. Smoking cessation depends mainly on the person himself, on his perseverance, willpower and sincere desire to quit smoking. Therefore, constant, skillful, timely sanitary and educational work in this direction will contribute to the rapid elimination of this bad habit.
In recent years, to alleviate the condition of the smoker who has decided to quit smoking, there are special preparations (Bulgarian - tabex, Soviet - Lobesil, etc.), the main active principle of which is lobelia.