The textile industry is the light industry engaged in the processing of fibrous vegetable (cotton, flax, etc.), animals (wool, silkworm cocoons), chemicals (viscose, nylon, Dacron, etc.) materials into fabrics and other products. The technological process of obtaining fabric includes three main stages: spinning, weaving and finishing.
In spinning and weaving workshops, air pollution of working premises often occurs with dust (see) processed raw materials, especially during loading, combing, and also during the cleaning of dust chambers. The manufacture of artificial fur is accompanied, in addition, by the release into the air of chloroprene. When processing natural raw materials, air pollution by bacteria and fungi is possible. Weaving and roving frames are a source of high-frequency noise (see) up to 90-105 dB, as well as general and local vibration (see). In spinning, spinning and weaving workshops, high air temperature (27–30 ° C), in coconutory shops of silk production and washing departments of woolen factories increased relative humidity. Work is associated with eyestrain in weavers.
Working conditions for finishing and dyeing are determined by high temperature and relative humidity and air pollution: when bleaching - with chlorine (see), with aniline dyeing - with aniline (see), with diazo painting - with nitrogen oxides (see), with sulfur dyeing - hydrogen sulfide (see), when singing carbon monoxide (see). Fiber dust can cause respiratory diseases ( pharyngitis , bronchitis, emphysema , moderate diffuse pneumosclerosis , bronchial asthma), as well as conjunctivitis and itching of the skin. Prolonged exposure to noise (see) can be a cause of occupational hearing loss , neurasthenia, etc.
Improving actions: equipment of the processing equipment by the aspirated shelters, sealing of the equipment, pneumatic cleaning of rooms; fighting noise (replacing shuttle looms with shuttleless, replacing metal parts of machines with plastic ones, rational sound absorption by walls and ceilings, using anti-phones); timely prevention of skin diseases; rational mode of work and rest. In the finishing workshops - replacement of chlorine with hydrogen peroxide , reducing the amount of aniline and other toxic substances in dyes. Providing workers with household premises, working clothes.