Tenesmus is a frequent painful urge to have a bowel movement or urination, in which a bowel movement or urination does not occur or ends with the ejection of small portions of intestinal or cystic contents.
Tenesmus occurs as a result of the tonic, spastic contraction of the muscles of the rectum (partly sigmoid) and other muscles involved in the act of defecation, as well as the muscles of the bladder. At the same time, the sphincters do not relax (as is normal), but remain spastic.
Pathological processes in the rectum ( proctitis , proctosigmoiditis, anal fissures, cancer complicated by hemorrhoids) or in the bladder and adjacent organs ( cystitis , prostatitis ) are the most common cause of tenesmus.
Treatment should be aimed at eliminating the underlying disease. The relief is provided by cool, sessile baths, lead-water lotions ; antispastic drugs (atropine, belladonna, etc.) used in candles, inside and subcutaneously; microclysters of heated vegetable oil, chamomile infusion, silver nitrate solution (1: 4000), potassium permanganate solution (1: 5000).