The Shadow Diseases
The

Shadow Doses

Shadowdoses are diseases caused by ribbon helminths (cestodes). There are two forms of shadowing of doses: shadowarhinhos and teniosis.


Mature segments of the chain: 1-bovine; 2-svinogo.

Teniarinhoz is caused by a bullish bovine (Taeniorhynchus saginatus). Bull chain 4-6 m long, its scolex without hooks. From the middle trunk of the uterus of the mature segment, 18 to 32 branches branch from each side (Fig.). Eggs of round shape, have a thin transparent shell. Inside the egg is the embryo (oncosphere). The life span of a bull chain in the human body can reach several tens of years. The final owner of a bull-beet is only a man, the intermediate owner is cattle (cows, less often buffalo, zebu, yak). The mature adherent parasitizes in the upper part of the small intestine of man, its larvae - cysticerci or Finns (Cysticercus bovis) - in the intermuscular connective tissue of animals. The patient secretes mature segments containing eggs in the external environment. Separation of segments occurs not only with feces, but also spontaneously; they can actively crawl out of the anus and crawl along the body of the patient. Segments begin to be allocated 2,5-4 months after infection of the person with tenierhinchiasis. Each segment contains tens of thousands of eggs that are released when it is destroyed. Eggs contain a mature larva. When swallowing eggs or segments of cattle, the larvae enter the capillaries of the intestinal wall and enter the bloodstream in any organs and tissues. In the musculature, the larvae become cysticerci. Cysticerc is a small vial filled with a clear liquid. A naked scolex is attached to its wall. It develops up to the invasive stage within 4 months. and maintains a viability of no more than 1 - 1.5 years.

The

Teniarinhoz is found everywhere, but mainly in areas of intensive animal husbandry. The infected person pollutes the segments with external segments and eggs. Infection of animals occurs when eating feces contaminated by sick grass, hay and other food. Calves can get infected while milking them (with finger-contaminated fingers). Oncospheres remain viable in the environment up to 2-8 weeks.

The population is infected with shtayearhinosis when eating raw, insufficiently thermally processed or slightly salted or jerky meat containing viable cysticerci. Mistresses are often infected by trying raw meat minced meat.

In the pathogenesis of teniarinchosis, toxicological and allergic reactions caused by the absorption of parasite exchange products are of great importance. A certain role is played by the parasite irritation of the nerve endings of the intestine.

The clinic of teniarinhoza is very diverse. There is a decrease in body weight, delay in general development in children, nausea , vomiting , decreased appetite, unstable stools, irritability, absent-mindedness, insomnia , dizziness.

Diagnosis is based on the results of examination of feces , rectal or perianal scrapings; also resort to a survey of patients on the allocation of periodically segments with feces.

Treatment is carried out in a hospital either outpatiently with phenasal or dichlorosal. Fenasal appoint adults to 2 g; to children on 0,5-1,5 g in 1/4 glasses of water. Take fenasal 3 hours after a light dinner, 1-2 hours before bedtime. Laxative and enemas are contraindicated. For people with cardiovascular disease, the drug is prescribed in the morning on an empty stomach. Dichlosal (2 g of phenasal and 1 g of dichlorophene) is more effective. The method of application is the same as fenasala. Assign also an ethereal extract from the rhizome of male fern , acrichine, pumpkin seeds. Control over the effectiveness of treatment is carried out after 3.5-4 months after treatment. In the absence of effect, the treatment is repeated.

Teniosis is caused by a chain pig (Taenia solium).

The pork chain has a scolex, armed with a double row of hooks. The mature segment is filled with a uterus consisting of a central trunk with 8-12 branches on each side. The pork chain parasitizes in the human small intestine. The mature segments detached from the strobila are outwardly only passively. Intermediate hosts for the pork chain are pigs, dogs. The life of a Finn is several years. Infection of people with shadows occurs when eating uncleared pork meat. Shadowosis is widespread in areas of intensive pig breeding. Pathogenesis and symptomatology of the teniosis are the same as in the case of shadow arthritis. The main difference between shadowy is that the patient can become infected with cysticercosis (see). The treatment is the same as in the case of a teniarhinhose, only the drugs are prescribed in the morning. After taking medications, a laxative is indicated.

The

The fight against tenierhinchiasis and shadyosis is carried out by mass dehelminthization (see), veterinary and sanitary examination of meat and sanitation of populated areas. As patients are identified, they are referred for treatment.

Veterinary measures in case of shadowarhinhosis and shadyosis are aimed at improvement of farms and improvement of livestock. It is necessary to wage a struggle with the homeless slaughter of cattle without a veterinary and sanitary examination. Great importance in the fight against these shadows is complex in the work of medical and veterinary personnel. Particular attention should be paid after de-worming to neutralize the feces of the patient, in which there are a large number of mature segments.

Shadow Doses
The causative agents of doses are tapeworms - pig and bovine chain. They refer to biogelmintics, since so-called intermediate hosts are needed for their distribution: for pigs, pigs, and for bovine cattle, large cattle.

These diseases have much in common, but at the same time there are differences, which will be discussed below.

Adult parasites, reaching several meters in length, live in the human intestine, attaching head ends to its wall. The body of the thionidae consists of a number of segments which, as they mature, come off the tail end of the worms and are excreted outwardly. At the same time, the feature of the segments of the bovine tapeworm is that they are able to crawl out of the intestine spontaneously, outside the act of defecation. This is one of the diagnostic signs of the disease, because, creeping out of the anus and crawling along the patient's body, the segments cause unpleasant sensations. In addition, they can easily be seen with a simple eye. At the same time, the patient can parasitize as single chains, and a large number of them, reaching in some cases dozens of copies (Figure 6).

Fig. 6. Bull tsezhenen.

Chain segments are packed with a colossal amount of microscopically small eggs, capable of infecting pigs and cattle with the larval stage - finnizom.

It happens this way. A sick person with non-observance of hygiene rules pollutes the soil of yards, vegetable gardens and often pastures with feces.

Cattle get infected by contaminating the barns with faeces of patients, as well as in pastures in cases when herds are visited by herd-infected shepherds. Pigs are most often infected by eating bowel movements, as well as digging in contaminated soil with feces.

From embryos swallowed by animals, embryos emerge that penetrate into the blood and are introduced into the muscles, where they turn into larvae, or Finn. From this moment, a person can become infected with a pig or bulbar chain if he consumes insufficiently boiled, fried or properly salted pork or beef meat that is infected with Finns. Once in the human intestine, the larva, or Finn, becomes an adult parasite. Thus, the circle of development of these worms closes.

The peculiarity of the pork chain is that its larval stage can parasitize a person. In case of a disease caused by a bull chain, this is practically not found. The larval stage of the pork chain can be infected, first, by swallowing the eggs of the chainworm, which in the stomach are released from the shell by the action of the acid. Emerging embryos enter the intestine, penetrate into the blood vessels and flow into the most diverse organs, mainly in the muscles. The second way of infection is as follows. If the patient, who has a mature parasite, the contents of the small intestine will enter the stomach (which is observed with nausea and vomiting), then the eggs of the chain can be released from the shell.

As a result, a massive infection of the human with larvae of the pork chain, which can cause severe complications, especially if the larvae (in humans called cysticerci) are recorded in vital organs - the central nervous system, eyeball, etc.

About such complications it is necessary to always remember and at an establishment of infection by a pigsty chain urgently to address in medical institution for treatment.

Symptoms in the intestinal form of the shadowing of doses are similar and are manifested by pain in the abdomen, diarrhea or constipation, nausea, vomiting, impaired appetite, which is often increased. Often patients complain of headaches, dizziness, irritability, weakness, anemia is often observed, sometimes in severe form.

Prevention of the disease of doses is reduced to preventing the infection of not only humans, but also pets. To do this, you must follow these basic rules.

Buy meat, only checked by sanitary-veterinary supervision.

Do not eat raw, undercooked, poorly cooked meat. If the meat is affected by the Finns, then you can get infected by trying minced meat, that is, when eating raw meat, even in very small quantities.

Follow the rules of personal hygiene.

If a disease is found, consult a doctor immediately.

Do not pollute yards, cows and pastures with stool. Use latrines that meet sanitary requirements.

Being protected from infection by a pig chain, the person thereby is protected from one more serious worm disease - trichinosis, transmitted mainly through pig meat, infected with trichinella (the disease is also called a puffy hair). In addition to pigs, Trichinella also parasitize wild boars, bears and many other carnivores, which should be especially remembered for hunters. It is not uncommon for the meat of a wild pig or bear to cause mass cases of a disease with a puffy hair.