Heat stroke is an acutely developing disease state caused by the general overheating of the body as a result of prolonged exposure to high ambient temperatures. Heat stroke occurs in violation of heat transfer or increased heat production. Overheating of the body (see) is especially susceptible to children, obese people with cardiovascular and endocrine diseases. Sweating concomitant with overheating leads to disruption of water-salt metabolism, thickening of the blood, impaired blood circulation, oxygen starvation.
A heatstroke can develop in workers in hot workshops, on construction sites on hot days, during military marches and as a result of direct exposure to the sun's rays - sunstroke. Heat stroke often occurs in young children due to imperfect thermoregulation when the body overheats.
Heat stroke can kill or cause damage to the brain and other internal organs. Although heat stroke mainly affects people over 50, it can also occur with young healthy athletes. Infants and children up to 4 years old and adults over 65 years old are especially vulnerable because they are adapted to slower heat than other people.Go
Heat stroke occurs due to prolonged exposure to high temperatures - usually in combination with dehydration, which leads to failure of the body temperature control system. The medical definition of heat stroke is the temperature of the main body over 40 degrees Celsius, with complications associated with the central nervous system that occur after exposure to high temperatures. Other common symptoms include nausea, convulsions, confusion, disorientation, and sometimes loss of consciousness or coma.
A characteristic sign of heat stroke is an increased body temperature above 40 °. Also, the first noticeable symptom is syncope.
Other symptoms: throbbing headache; dizziness; no sweating despite fever; reddened, hot and dry skin; muscle weakness or cramps; nausea and vomiting; heart palpitations, which can be both strong and weak; rapid breathing; behavioral changes such as disorientation.
Clinic and symptoms . With heat stroke, the onset is acute, the flow is fast. In the mild form, weakness, headache, nausea , respiration and pulse are increased, the skin is moist, the pupils are dilated, the temperature is normal or subfebrile.
With a moderate heat stroke - severe weakness, severe headache with nausea and vomiting, stupor, uncertainty of movements, sometimes fainting (see Faint), pulse and respiration are increased, the skin is hyperemic. Sweating increased, t ° 39-40 °.
In severe forms of heat stroke, consciousness changes from mild to coma (see), convulsions , psychomotor agitation, delusions, hallucinations may occur. Breathing is superficial, rapid, pulse 120-140 in 1 min., Small, filiform, t-41-42 °. The amount of urine is reduced, the blood thickens, the residual nitrogen increases. Rare complications include epileptic seizures, increased intracranial pressure.
If you suspect that someone has suffered a heat or sunstroke, immediately call the ambulance and give first aid until the doctors arrive. Any delay in seeking medical attention can be fatal to the victim.Go
First aid and treatment . The patient must be quickly brought into a room with air conditioning or on a shaded area open to the wind (use a fan if present), free from unnecessary clothing, wet face with cold water, and cool the body with a wet towel. Put a bubble with cold water on your head. In all cases, the inhalation of oxygen is necessary. It is very important to reduce body temperature to at least 38 °. Quickly help to cool ice packs, which should be put on the armpits, groin, neck and back of the patient. Since these areas are rich in blood vessels close to the skin, cooling them will quickly reduce body temperature. Immerse the patient in a bath or shower with cold water. If a person is young and healthy and has suffered a heat stroke during intense physical exercise, that is, he received a so-called intense heat stroke, you can use an ice bath to help cool his body. Do not use ice for elderly patients, young children, patients with chronic illnesses, or for those whose heat stroke occurred without vigorous exercise, this can be dangerous.
Isotonic solution of sodium chloride, intravenous glucose (40% solution 20-30 ml) are injected subcutaneously. With the weakening of the heart activity subcutaneously caffeine-sodium benzoate (10% solution of 1 ml), with respiratory distress of intramuscular lobelia (1% solution of 0.5 ml). Plentiful drink: drink cold water, tea , coffee.
Forecast : in case of mild and moderate severity of heatstroke, when rendering proper and timely first aid, the functions of the body are restored fairly quickly. In severe heat stroke, if assistance is rendered out of time, it can be fatal.
Risk factors and prevention .
Heat stroke is likely to affect older people who live in apartments or houses where there is no air conditioning or good ventilation. Other high-risk groups include people of any age who do not drink enough water, have a chronic illness, or drink excessive amounts of alcohol.
Relative humidity of 60% or more prevents the evaporation of sweat, which interferes with your body's ability to cool.
If you live in an urban area, you may be particularly prone to developing heat stroke during prolonged heat, especially if there are stagnant atmospheric conditions and poor air quality. In the so-called "heat island effect", asphalt and concrete retain heat during the day and only gradually release it at night, which leads to higher night-time temperatures.
Other risk factors associated with the disease. These include heart, lung or kidney disease, obesity or underweight, high blood pressure, diabetes, mental illness, alcoholism, sunburn, and any conditions that cause fever.
Drugs . These include antihistamines, diet pills, diuretics, sedatives, tranquilizers, stimulants, seizures (anticonvulsants), heart and blood pressure medications, such as beta-blockers and vasoconstrictor drugs, and mental health medications, such as antidepressants and antipsychotics. Illegal drugs such as cocaine and methamphetamine are also associated with an increased risk of heart attack.
According to a recent study, people with diabetes who are at increased risk of hospitalization and death from heat-related diseases may be particularly inclined to underestimate their risk during the heat wave.
Check with your doctor to find out if your medical conditions and medications may affect your ability to cope with extreme heat and humidity.
Measures to improve working conditions in the hot shops: air cooling, cool showers, dousing, free light clothing, periodically you need to take breaks for rest. It is advisable to postpone the main meal in the evening (consumption for dinner up to 40% of the daily diet). Instead of water during operation it is recommended to use sparkling water, acidified tea, cherry broth, bread kvass.