Tetracyclines are a group of drugs whose active ingredient is the antibiotic tetracycline, produced by Streptomyces aurefaciens and other related organisms.
1. Tetracycline (Tetracyclinum; synonym deschlorobiomycin; list B ) is an antibiotic that is effective against gram-positive and gram-negative microbes, rickettsiae and certain viruses. Is used to treat pneumonia, subacute bacterial endocarditis , bacterial and amoebic dysentery, pertussis, gonorrhea , brucellosis , tularaemia , typhus , psittacosis , urinary tract infections, chronic cholecystitis , purulent meningitis, peritonitis, surgical sepsis and burns, abscesses, mastitis, blepharitis, keratitis, corneal ulcers and other diseases caused by susceptible microorganisms. Is taken orally for half an hour before or 1 hour after a meal in tablets or capsules of 0.1 - 0.2 g 4-6 times a day. The course of treatment is 7-8 days. The highest daily dose of 2 g. For parenteral administration (intramuscularly and in the cavity) use tetracycline hydrochloride (Tetracyclini hydrochloridum). Solutions are prepared ex tempore for 1-2% solution of novocaine (2.5-5 ml) at the rate of 0.05-0.1 g of tetracycline per administration. Enter tetracycline hydrochloride 2-3 times a day for 5-7 days. A single dose for administration in the cavity of 0.025—0.1 g. Locally prescribed as a suspension . Tetracycline can cause nausea , vomiting, loss of appetite, loose stools, allergic reactions, the development of candidiasis. To prevent side effects caused by tetracycline, it is recommended to use it with vitamins. For this purpose, produce special pills ("Vititsklin"). In order to prevent the development of candidiasis, dragees containing tetracycline with nystatin are prescribed. Tetracycline is contraindicated in case of hypersensitivity to it, in case of fungal diseases, dystrophic liver diseases, leukopenia, and a sharp impaired renal function. Forms of release: powder, tablets of 0.1 and 0.2 g (100 000–200 000 IU), capsules of 0.1 and 0.2 g (100 000 and 200 000 IU), suspension, ointment.
2. Oxytetracycline (Oxytetracyclinum; synonym terramycin). Indications for use are the same as for tetracycline. Assign inside the tablets or in the form of a suspension of 0.1 - 0.2 g (100 000—200 000 IU) at the reception 3-4 times a day. The course of treatment is 4 to 10 days. Higher doses: single - 0.5 g (500,000 IU), daily - 2 g (2,000,000 IU). For intramuscular administration, a solution of oxytetracycline hydrochloride in a 1-2% solution of novocaine is used. For the treatment of eye diseases (conjunctivitis, blepharitis, keratitis, trachoma , etc.) apply ointment. Contraindications to use are the same as for tetracycline.
Forms of release: powder, tablets on 0,1 and 0,2 g (100 000 and 200 000 IU); eye ointment; suspension.
See also Antibiotics, Chlortetracycline .