Thiamine (Thiaminum; vitamin B1; list B ) is a specific agent for the treatment and prevention of B1-hypovitaminosis. Thiamine is also used for neuritis, neuralgia, peripheral paraplegia, liver disease, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, in patients with angina pectoris and myocardial infarction, with endarteritis and other diseases. Assign inside of 0.006-0.02 g 1-5 times a day or intramuscularly of 0.015-0.06 g once a day.
Available in the form of thiamine-bromide (Thiamini bromidum) in powder, dragees and tablets of 0.002 g, in ampoules of 1 ml of 3 and 6% solution or as thiamine-chloride (Thiamini chloridum) in powder and tablets of 0.002; 0.005 and 0.01 g, in 1 ml ampoules of 2.5 and 5% solution.
See also Vitamins.
The important role of vitamin B1 in the body basically comes down to the fact that it is part of the enzyme involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates. A lack of vitamin B1 in the body leads to the accumulation of pyruvic and lactic acids in it, and this leads to disorders of the nervous system and the heart. With a lack of this vitamin in food, the metabolism of fats and proteins is also disturbed.
Vitamin B1 is the most abundant in cereals. A good source of it are also legumes - peas, beans, lentils, soy. Products of animal origin, with the exception of pork, are poor in this vitamin. Relatively a lot of it is contained in the liver, kidneys, heart. Vitamin B1 in foods tolerates heat in the presence of acids, but quickly collapses when alkali (soda) is added to water.Go
Vitamin B1 is distributed unevenly in the grain - the largest amount of it is in the shells of the grain and in its germ. That is why white bread baked from the highest grades of flour contains several times less vitamin B1 than black bread from wholemeal flour with bran. For the same reason, they almost do not contain vitamin B) rice and some other cereals (millet, barley and others), in the manufacture of which all skins are removed.
In some Asian countries, rice is the main crop and the main source of nutrition for the population. Diseases B1-avitaminosis is common in these countries, and they are found mainly among the poorest segments of the population, whose food consists almost exclusively of only polished rice.
At the same time, the very nerves of the extremities, especially the nerves of the legs, are disturbed, gait is disturbed, paralysis occurs, and heart activity is disturbed. The gait of such patients resembles the movement of a person with chained legs. The name of the disease itself is connected with this - beriberi (in Indian, “beri” means “shackles”).
You can get sick with B1-avitaminosis, of course, by eating not only rice, but also any other food that lacks vitamin B1. For example, this disease is often observed in people who consume mainly white bread, cereal and other mealy dishes, almost not containing vitamin B1.
Under normal conditions, the daily requirement for vitamin B1 is 2 milligrams for an adult, 1.5 milligrams for children under 7 years old.
The symptoms of B1-hypovitaminosis are often associated with complaints of women during pregnancy about the feeling of numbness and tingling in the finger tips, cramps in the leg muscles, etc. The prescription of vitamin B preparations; quickly relieves these unpleasant sensations.
The vitamin industry produces vitamin B1 in the form of tablets and dragees containing either this vitamin alone or in combination with vitamin C. This combination is not accidental, since the increase in demand for both vitamins is often observed under the same conditions. A valuable source of vitamin B1 is liquid and dry brewer's yeast. Solutions of this vitamin, produced in ampoules, are administered subcutaneously or intramuscularly, for example, in case of diseases of the stomach and intestines.
Vitamin B1 as a therapeutic agent is widely used for diseases of the nerves (neuritis and radiculitis), resulting from some poisoning, past infections, injuries and other causes. Vitamin B1 has the ability to reduce the feeling of pain. There are observations that higher doses protect it from the development of poisoning associated with the effect on the body of some industrial poisons (carbon disulfide, lead, arsenic compounds). Currently still require verification of interesting information about that. that vitamin B1 in combination with some other vitamins of group B contributes to better well-being of people when flying at high altitude.