The Tourism


Tourism - this is one of the means of physical education, an active recreation. Variety of forms and accessibility for the general population determine mass popularity and popularity of tourism. The most massive is pedestrian tourism. During the campaign, under the influence of active muscular work and natural factors, the activity of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems improves, the intensity of metabolic processes increases; In addition, an abundance of impressions and positive emotions have a beneficial effect on the nervous system. Various types of tourism are included in the Unified All-Union Sports Classification, included in the BHT and TRP complexes. Established discharge standards, the title of master of sports , there is a provision on awarding badges "Young Tourist" and "Tourist of the USSR."

Organizationally, they distinguish amateur tourism (independent choice of route and mode of transportation, self-service on the way) and conducted by tourist-excursion organizations. Tourist campaigns can be group and mass. By duration, hiking trips are one-day or two-day (on weekends) and multi-day tourist trips. On the territorial basis, distinguish between neighbor, or local tourism, long-distance travel and, finally, international tourism. The latter is used as a means of cultural communication with peoples of different countries. Different ways of traveling used by tourists are also different: ski trips, bicycle , motorcycle, car, water (boat, kayak), etc.


When organizing children's tourism (for students of grades III-V), it is necessary to take into account the following requirements: trained managers (teachers, pioneer leaders) should be singled out; groups should be uniform in age and degree of participants' training; it is necessary to limit the duration of the transitions, the speed of movement and, conversely, to increase the time for local studies, games, conversations around the fire, etc. Important types of children and youth tourism that promote patriotism and related to the study of military affairs in the form of war games.

An important condition for the positive impact of tourism is the observance of the discipline and the regime of the day by the participants in the campaign (table 1).

Table 1. The approximate regime of the day participants of the multi-day hike
Events Execution time (per hour)
Morning exercise, breakfast, road taxes
The first (large) transition
A large halt (lunch, rest, sightseeing, cultural entertainment, games, etc.

Second transition
Preparation of a bivouac, dinner, cultural entertainment


15 to 18-19
From 22 to 6
Note. Small halts (10 minutes each) - every 45-60 minutes.

Table 2. Average standards of physical activity for participants in walking tours
Age group Speed ​​of movement along the virgin soil (in km / h) Distance (in km) Cargo weight (in kg)
Junior students (students of grades 3-5)
Senior students
Boys and Adults




The norms of physical activity (Table 2) depend on the age, gender, health status, degree of fitness of the participants in the hike, as well as the nature of the terrain, the profile of the route, the season, the weather,

The choice of route, mode of travel, duration of travel, etc. should correspond to the capabilities of the group members. Some types of tourism, with the right organization of the trek, are well tolerated by people with pronounced age-related changes and some chronic diseases (outside the period of exacerbation). Certain diseases and abnormalities in the state of health are a contraindication to participation in tourist activities, for example chronic thrombophlebitis (for pedestrian or bicycle tourism), lumbosacral radiculitis (for canoeing), reduced visual acuity (for traveling by bicycle and motorbike, etc. .). This indicates the importance of medical control over the tourism industry. To maintain health on the road, it is very important to know and fulfill hygiene requirements for clothing, footwear, and all equipment ( tents , sleeping bags, dishes , etc.). It is necessary to take a first aid kit, know how to provide first aid for injuries and illnesses. To organize proper nutrition on the way, you need to have a stock of high-calorie concentrates, canned food, vitamins, water disinfectants ( pantocide ); observe special care when eating wild plants, berries, mushrooms. It is recommended to get acquainted with the medical geography of the travel area, with questions of regional pathology. Tourists must observe the rules of hygiene, do not pollute the places of their parking, protect vegetation and useful animals.