Toxic syndrome in children is a severe general non-specific reaction of the child of early (chest and toddlers) age to the introduction of microbial toxins or viruses, as well as the introduction of food that does not correspond qualitatively and quantitatively to a given state of the body.
Toxic syndrome can occur in a wide variety of diseases, most often in diseases of an infectious nature - dysentery, colienteritis, staphylococcal enteritis , salmonella , as well as diseases not associated with the primary infection - dyspepsia (see), inherited metabolic diseases. Respiratory viral infections , pneumonia , otitis and other diseases of young children often occur with toxicosis.
The basis of the toxic syndrome is the neuroreflex reaction to irritation of the nervous system, its vegetative divisions, bacterial toxins , viruses, and products of tissue breakdown. This reaction is not adequate to the irritant and is characterized as hyperergic. As a result of neurohumoral disorders, pathological changes occur in the body: spasm and dilation of blood vessels, the porosity of their cell membranes increases, diapedemic micro and macro bleedings occur (see Diapedesis), the intracellular salt balance is disturbed. Toxic syndrome can occur with dehydration (with eksikozy) and without dehydration of the child's body.Go
Toxicosis without dehydration in the form of a complex of neuroreflex reactions, developing as a result of irritation of the central nervous system, is called neurotoxicosis. Neurotoxicosis is more common in children who have suffered a birth injury or suffer from congenital encephalopathy, as well as at the beginning of many acute infectious diseases. Clinically, neurotoxicosis is characterized by a severe condition of the patient, fever, anxiety, impaired consciousness, convulsive jerking of the facial muscles, involuntary movements of the arms and legs, clonic-tonic convulsions (see), meningoencephalic symptoms. Breathing frequent, uneven. Cardiovascular abnormalities are manifested in the form of tachycardia , filamentous pulse, expansion of the borders of the heart, blood pressure lability, and deaf tones of the heart. In neurotoxicosis, along with the general symptoms, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract can be observed and liver, kidney and adrenal gland function deficiencies can be detected.
The severity of the clinical picture of toxicosis with eksikozy associated with a large loss of water and salt.
The child may develop acute intoxication, hemodynamic disturbances and shock occur. At the same time, a motionless face, frozen (without blinking), a gaze fixed in space, deeply hollow eyes, a sunken large spring is clinically noted. The child is in soporous or comatose state (see Consciousness, disorders ). The relative borders of the heart are reduced, the pulse is accelerated, the heart sounds are deaf. Perhaps the development of acute cardiac weakness. Radiographically marked swelling of the lung tissue.
The rapid development of toxicosis with exsiccosis is accompanied by vomiting, diarrhea . Stools frequent, feces liquid, watery; fecal masses are allocated with a stream, admixture of the separated epithelium gives them a whitish appearance. Developed dehydration is accompanied by fever, great weight loss. Turgor of tissues rapidly decreases, the skin becomes grayish-sallow, dry, wrinkled, easily gathers in folds. Urination rare, may be oliguria. With the progression of the disease, a reduced or increased muscle tone , jerking of the facial muscles, erratic automatic movements, limbs become bluish and cold.
The prognosis is serious, death is possible.