A trachea (trachea) - this is the respiratory throat - is a direct continuation of the larynx. It has the form of a tube 11–13 cm long, consisting of 16–20 cartilaginous semirings, connected by dense fibrous connective tissue (fig.). The place of division of the trachea into the bronchi is called the trachea bifurcation. In the upper part of the trachea is located more anteriorly, and below goes backwards. The trachea is lined with a mucous membrane covered with ciliated epithelium , the villi of which move cranially. In the submucosal layer many mixed mucous glands . The mucous membrane of the trachea, as well as the bronchi (see), has a large suction capacity, which allows you to inject in the trachea in the form of inhalation drugs.
Inspection of the upper trachea is possible with a laryngeal mirror or with direct laryngoscopy (see).
Larynx, trachea and large bronchi: 1 - larynx; 2 - trachea; 3 - trachea bifurcation; 4 - left main bronchus; 5 - right main bronchus.
Inflammation of the tracheal mucosa - tracheitis (see) - most often the result of a descending (less often ascending) catarrh of the upper respiratory tract. As a rule, tracheitis occurs with acute infectious diseases (influenza, measles, whooping cough). Tuberculosis often affects the lower third of the trachea and its bifurcation. Syphilis (tertiary) trachea is less common than larynx. Benign tracheal tumors are similar to those in the larynx, but are less common. There is an air tumor - tracheocele. Of the malignant tumors of the trachea are sarcoma and cancer . In clinical practice, there are also tracheal stenosis of various etiologies. In these cases, a tracheotomy is necessary (see).