Trauma is a violation of the vital processes and functions of the body under the influence of an excessively strong influence of environmental factors - physical and chemical (local or general) or mental. Injury can also be caused by moderate, but persistently repeated exposure to one or another factor. Injuries caused by the local action of physical or chemical agents and usually accompanied by changes in anatomical structures are referred to as injuries. This is the most frequent, everyday case of injury.
However, injury and damage are not synonymous; The term “damage”, as a rule, is not applied to those types of injuries that are characterized by pronounced general disorders, and local (especially anatomical) disorders are absent or not necessary. These are the “rheumatic” trauma, in which the traumatic agent is cooling (“cold factor”), and especially mental trauma is the result of fright, which suddenly suffered grief, and so on, of severe experiences. The injury caused by a mechanical impact, evenly distributed over the entire surface of the victim's body, is called a common contusion (see). Acoustic trauma (see), barotrauma (see), and trauma caused by overload during acceleration have a specific mechanism and clinical picture. Depending on the situation and circumstances that caused the traumatic effect, there is a military, industrial, sports, household and other trauma.