Trichocephalosis (trichocephalosis) is a helminthiasis caused by the vaginal head Trichocephalus trichiurus. The length of the male is 30-45 mm, the female is 35-55 mm (Figure 1). It parasitizes more often in the cecum, sometimes in the lower part of the ileum and all over the large intestine. The vaginal head is fixed on the wall of the intestine by the thin head end of the body (Figure 2). With feces of patients with trichocephalosis, helminth eggs are isolated, which ripen in the soil. Infection of a person with trichocephalosis occurs when ingested mature eggs with contaminated vegetables, fruits, soil particles.
Fig. 1. Vlazoglav: above - the female, below - the male. Fig. 2. Vlasoglav on the mucous membrane of the human cecum.
Clinical picture (symptoms and signs). Misfortune, dyspeptic disorders, abdominal pain are noted. When vaginal heads penetrate into the appendix, appendicular colic attacks occur, and with secondary bacterial infection, appendicitis. Described hemocolitics. Often there are headaches, dizziness, restless sleep . There are epileptiform cramps . Occasionally, normo- or hypochromic anemia develops. Trichocephalosis often proceeds subclinically.
The diagnosis is based on the detection in the feces of egg whiskers.The
Treatment is carried out with naphthamone, oxygen. Naphthamone is administered for 3-5 consecutive days. Daily (single) dose for adults - 5 g; children under 5 years 2-2.5 g; 6-8 years - 3 g; 9-10 years - 4 g; older than 10 years, 5 g. A single dose of the drug is thoroughly stirred in 50 ml of sugar syrup and taken for 1 hour before breakfast in the morning. Oxygen is injected into the rectum for 15-20 min. after cleansing enema. The dose of oxygen per session for adults is 1200-1500 ml, for children - 100 ml for 1 year of life. The treatment cycle is 5-7 days. With timely treatment - a favorable prognosis.
Prevention . Sanitary improvement of populated areas, eating fruits and vegetables only after washing.
See also Helminthiases, Helminthological Methods of Investigation.
Trichocephalus is caused by small worms, reaching a length of 3-5 centimeters. The head end of the parasite is thin, like a hair, so it is called a whiphead. Distribution of trichocephalosis is in many respects similar to the spread of ascariasis, but parasites live in the human body much more - up to 4-5 years (Figure 2). In the adult state, the vaginal heads parasitize in the large intestine, as if stitching the mucous membrane with the head end and thus holding in the lumen of it.
Fig. 2. Whitened (natural size)
Females isolated by females, fertilized, microscopically small eggs can develop for 1-2 months to infectious stage, after getting into a warm, rather wet and sun-protected soil. To infect a healthy person, ripe eggs must get into his body through the mouth. We already know that this can happen if the rules of personal hygiene and food hygiene are not respected.
Of the ripening eggs of the vagal head, which have entered the human intestine, the larvae will hatch. Of these, adult worms will also grow. If the roundworms feed on the body's juices, then the blood of the withered heads enters the food ration of the vaginal heads, oozing from the intestinal wall damaged by the parasite.
In some cases, especially when the infection is not massive, there are no clinical manifestations of the disease or they are very weak. But often vowers cause very severe forms of the disease. Phenomena from the digestive organs may resemble the clinical picture of ascariasis, but the appetite for trichocephalosis is often lowered. Headaches, nausea, dizziness, weakness and irritability are very common. Pain in the abdomen is often paroxysmal. In patients, anemia can develop, the function of the nervous system may be disturbed, which is the result of exposure to harmful products of the vital activity of parasites. Sometimes the symptoms of trichocephalosis resemble signs of peptic ulcer, colitis, appendicitis. There are often constipation or diarrhea that can change each other.The
Treating trichocephalosis is much more difficult than ascariasis. As a rule, the course of treatment is more durable and not always successful enough. In all probability, this is due to the fact that the head end of the parasite is hidden in the intestinal mucosa and is inaccessible to the effects of drugs. But this should not stop the patients - it is necessary to treat trichocephalus.
In view of the fact that the ways of infection with dandruff are the same as in ascariasis, the prevention of trichocephalosis is similar to the prevention of ascaridosis.
We recall its basic rules.
Wash hands before meals, before cooking and after visiting the restroom.
Do not drink water of dubious purity.
Vegetables, greens, berries and fruits before eating, thoroughly wash, and if possible, pour boiling water.
Keep the apartment clean.
Food products must be protected from contamination, from insects and rodents, which are most often mechanical peddlers of mature worm eggs.
Keep clean in the yards. In areas not provided with sewerage, do not allow contamination of the soil with faeces. To fertilize orchards and gardens, use them only after neutralization, composting or after a long (for two years) aging in a closed pit.
In addition, the responsibility of adults is to observe that children comply with the rules of hygiene, do not take your fingers in the mouth, as well as contaminated toys, so that after playing on the ground, you wash your hands thoroughly.
With the purpose of timely detection of trichocephalosis, it is necessary to periodically be examined for helminths in medical institutions.