Employment of patients and invalids in the USSR is a system of state and public events aimed at attracting persons with disabilities to socially useful work without prejudice to their health.
Rational employment helps to restore the working capacity of patients and people with disabilities.
Employment of patients in need of facilitated working conditions or changing professions is carried out in accordance with the conclusions of medical and consulting or medical and labor expert commissions, whose decisions are binding for managers of enterprises, institutions, organizations, state farms and collective farms. The validity, expediency and accuracy of the determination of labor recommendations are an important condition for the successful resolution of the entire employment problem (see Expertise ).
There are various forms of employment for disabled people. This takes into account disability factors, such as the degree of loss (or limitation) of work capacity and disability, as well as the nature of the disease. In all cases, when possible, it is necessary to preserve the old profession, work environment, etc.The
Invalids of Group III shown for health reasons are primarily provided at those enterprises, in institutions where they worked before the onset of disability, that is, in normal working conditions. In these cases, the previous experience, work skills, and professional knowledge are used. Rational employment in case of disability of the third group consists in changing the working and resting mode, adapting the equipment to the functional capabilities of the disabled person, special organization of the workplace, supplying workers with prosthetics and appliances.
In some cases, persons in need of special types of work are sent to specialized enterprises for the disabled.
One of the forms of employment for disabled people of the II group due to tuberculosis, cardiovascular and neuropsychic diseases is the creation of special workshops organized on the basis of specialized enterprises or enterprises of the usual type. In such workshops, it is provided not only the creation of specific and most favorable conditions for the disabled, but also their professional training.
A promising form of employment for disabled people of II and I groups is the organization of home-based work. The task of organizing the work of disabled people in this case is decided by specialized enterprises, as well as enterprises of local industry and consumer services.
In the RSFSR and other union republics there are societies of the blind and deaf, with a network of training and production enterprises. These enterprises are the main base for vocational training (retraining) and employment of disabled people of II and I groups due to diseases of the organs of sight and hearing . Workers at specialized enterprises receive additional benefits (limited production rates, reduced working hours, additional paid holidays, etc.). Permanent medical supervision is established for workers.
In the general plan of social and labor rehabilitation, private employment issues are solved by providing disabled people with prostheses and orthopedic products, motorcycles and bicycles, cars with manual control, etc. (see Rehabilitation ).