Trypanosomiasis is a disease in humans and animals caused by flagellated protozoa belonging to the family Trypanosomatidae. There are African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) and American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease).
The trypanosomes isolated from the blood have the form of moving, light, coiling formations of oblong or irregular shape from 10-20 to 60-70 microns in length.
In the study of drugs stained by the Romanovsky - Giemsa method, the cytoplasm appears to be pale blue, the nucleus - red.
Trypanosomiasis is a transmissible disease with severe natural foci . The source of infection is a sick person, a parasite carrier, and possibly some types of domestic (goats, pigs, dogs, cats) and wild (antelopes, armadillos, opossums, monkeys) animals. The infection is transmitted by insect vectors. In African trypanosomiasis, the trypanosome is transmitted by the bite of a tsetse fly; with American trypanosomiasis - with the bite of triatom, or kiss, bedbugs. Human infection occurs mainly when the bite is insects containing parasites , or contact of infected bug excrement on the mucous membrane of the eye, damaged skin. In addition, it is possible to transmit the infection directly from person to person through blood transfusions, when using syringes and needles contaminated with the blood of a patient. A certain role is played by mechanical carriers (flies, gadflies, mosquitoes). Trypanosomiasis is not found on the territory of the Soviet Union. Sleeping sickness is reported in a number of countries in southern and eastern Africa. Foci of Chagas disease are found in most countries in South America.
The clinical course of African trypanosomiasis is characterized by fever (intermittently), skin rashes, swollen lymph nodes, swelling and damage to the central nervous system (increasing drowsiness). For American trypanosomiasis, the development of specific myocarditis and damage to the digestive tract is typical.
Prevention measures include the identification, isolation and treatment of patients, mass chemoprophylaxis of the population, the destruction of vectors. In order to chemoprophylaxis of sleeping sickness, a 4% solution of pentamidine is applied intramuscularly in a dose of 0.004 g per 1 kg of weight once every 6 months. Vector control is carried out with insecticides (dieldrin, telodrin, DDT); clearing vegetation as well as the destruction of infected animals is recommended. A radical event in Chagas disease is the improvement of the social and living conditions of the population (the replacement of primitive dwellings with comfortable ones).