Carbohydrates (glycides) are a group of organic substances of the general formula - C m H 2n O n . Formally, carbohydrates can be considered as compounds of carbon and water [C m (H 2 0) n ], hence the name carbohydrates. Along with proteins (see) and fats (see) are necessary for the life of animals and plants.
Carbohydrates are divided into simple, or monosaccharides (see), not capable of hydrolysis, and complex carbohydrates, hydrolyzing into a number of simple carbohydrates. By the number of carbon atoms in a molecule, simple carbohydrates are divided into tetroses, pentoses , hexoses, etc., and by chemical structure, these are polyhydric aldehyde and ketone alcohols - aldoses and ketoses. The most important are hexoses: glucose (see) and fructose. By the amount of simple carbohydrates obtained by their hydrolysis, complex carbohydrates are divided into disaccharides, trisaccharides, etc., and polysaccharides (see), which give many simple carbohydrate molecules during hydrolysis. Disaccharides include: beet sugar , or sucrose (see), milk sugar, or lactose (see), etc. Polysaccharides are divided into: homopolysaccharides, which give one type of simple carbohydrate during hydrolysis (for example, starch, fiber give glucose) and heteropolysaccharides, which give a mixture of simple carbohydrates and their derivatives, for example, mucopolysaccharides (see), etc.
See also Carbohydrate metabolism .