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Obstetrics

Obstetrics is a branch of medicine that studies the physiological and pathological processes in a woman’s body during pregnancy , childbirth and the postpartum period . Obstetrics as a clinical discipline consists of the following sections: physiology and pathology of pregnancy , childbirth and the postpartum period; physiology and pathology of the newborn ; operative obstetrics. Obstetrics is closely related to gynecology .

Emergency care for obstetric pathology

The section of the site is devoted to the most common forms of obstetric pathology, their diagnosis and the provision of emergency medical care. Such forms of pathology as miscarriages, damage to the uterus during curettage, gallbladder, chorionepithelioma, ectopic pregnancy, improper positioning and attachment of the placenta, eclampsia, etc. are described. help.

The monograph contains 121 figure, 30 tables.

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a common part
Objectives of the obstetrician-gynecologist
Clinical examination of pregnant women and mothers
General examination
Special examination
Measurement of the pelvis
Internal (Vaginal) Examination
Special part
The most important and common clinical forms of obstetric pathology
Miscarriage (abortion)
Spontaneous miscarriage
Artificial community-acquired (criminal) miscarriage
Traumatic genital damage due to abortion
Diseases of the ovum
Bubble skid
Chorionepithelioma
Undeveloped pregnancy (miscarriage and delayed childbirth)
Ectopic pregnancy
Undisturbed (progressive) tubal pregnancy
Interrupted tubal pregnancy
Interrupted tubal pregnancy
Ectopic late pregnancy
Anomalies of the location and attachment of the placenta in the uterus
Premature detachment of a normally located placenta
Prolapse of the placenta
Shell umbilical attachment
Spontaneous rupture of the uterus during pregnancy and childbirth
Uterine detachment from vaginal vaults
Eclampsia
Convulsive form of eclampsia
Basic principles of treatment for eclampsia
Acute forms of surgical diseases of the abdominal organs
during pregnancy
Appendicitis and pregnancy
Intestinal obstruction and pregnancy
Twisted ovarian tumor (cyst, cystoma) and pregnancy
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Pathology of the generic act
On the preparation of the body of a pregnant woman for the upcoming birth. Factors contributing to the onset of labor, dominant pregnancy and childbirth
Tribal forces and their anomalies
Kinematics of the fetus in the birth canal (biomechanism of birth)
Childbirth with abnormal prevalence of the fetal head
General information about the unfolded presentation of the fetal head
Anteropagia
Frontal previa
Facial presentation
High straight standing swept seam with head abnormal presentations
Childbirth with pelvic presentation of the fetus
Delivery in the transverse position of the fetus
Childbirth large and giant fruit
Childbirth with breech or prolapse of a fetal limb
Presentation and loss of the leg with the head previa
Presentation and fallout of the handle with head presentation
Preposition and cord prolapse
Childbirth with a narrow pelvis (general installation)

Complications in the postnatal and postnatal periods
Normal afterbirth
Complicated afterbirth
Delayed afterbirth and parts
False and true increment of the placenta
Hypotonic and atonic bleeding
Bleeding from external genital parts, vagina and cervix
Inversion of the uterus
Hematomas of the birth canal
Late postpartum hemorrhage
Measures for the prevention of intrauterine asphyxia
Activities for the revival of children born in the state of asphyxiation

Those who are addicted to practice, having no knowledge, are like sailors entering the ship without a rudder or compass and never know for sure where they are sailing (Leonardo da Vinci)

The focus of modern practical obstetrics as well as all Soviet medicine is primarily preventive. This means that during pregnancy it is necessary to identify and eliminate factors that may adversely affect its course and the upcoming delivery.

This task becomes even more difficult, and in some cases completely insurmountable, when certain pathological factors begin to affect the condition of the woman and the fetus during the onset of labor, often reflecting on the course of the childbirth itself.

Hence, the meaning of preventive measures taken in advance, even before or during pregnancy and at the beginning of labor, becomes clear.

These tasks can be accomplished only by a doctor who is well acquainted with the fundamentals of modern clinical and physiological statements about pregnancy and the labor act in the aspect of Pavlovian theory of nervism. Only having a clear idea of ​​the dominant of pregnancy and the dominant of childbirth, the doctor can recognize the developing pathology in time and take the necessary decision regarding therapeutic measures in each case.

Equally, much attention should be paid to the consideration of issues related to the generic act, and, in particular, the kinematics of the fetus along the birth canal from physical and mathematical positions, as well as installations on the tactics of labor management in each particular case of obstetric pathology, especially among persons with or other violations.

In connection with what has been said in this section, questions concerning the etiopathogenesis of certain forms of obstetric pathology are described in detail from current clinical and physiological positions, and appropriate diagnostic techniques and research methods are given.
45 years of work in the higher medical school as a teacher and clinician gives me the right to share with practical doctors experience in the field of obstetrics and gynecology.

The author of this manual will be satisfied if the practical doctor, while reading the section, replenishes his knowledge, which will help him in his highly useful, but often very difficult work.

The progressive development of theoretical medicine continuously makes significant changes in medical practice. There are new methods of diagnosis and treatment, which are aimed at improving the formulation of medical care.

A doctor who wants to keep abreast of his current knowledge and succeed in his work must constantly improve in his work. The knowledge acquired by the doctor in higher education, are insufficient with specialization in a particular branch of medicine. This is understandable. With the current state of medicine, the higher school manages to give the future doctor only general knowledge of the main disciplines, while the amount of special knowledge remains insufficient and is acquired by the doctor in his subsequent activities. Because of this, a young doctor is often in a difficult position to recognize the disease, assess its severity and select the appropriate treatment method. These difficulties are especially great in obstetrics, where inaccurate diagnostics, untimely and incorrectly chosen obstetric interventions can lead not only to serious complications, but also cause the death of the mother and child. To avoid complications and to choose the right intervention, the obstetrician must be able to correctly evaluate each individual obstetric case, carefully understand its clinical picture and accurately diagnose the existing complication. This can be achieved only by studying the clinic of pregnancy and childbirth with various complications. To this end, the doctor has to undergo specialization and advanced training courses, internship, internship, residency, etc., which provide basic theoretical and practical installations on a number of issues and determine its further improvement. But the training of the doctor is not limited to this. He must personally improve his knowledge by studying medical literature, participating in scientific societies, congresses and conferences, and using more extensively the possibilities of “lively” consultation with specialists from his field and related fields, which is especially available in conditions of joint institutions.

It is not necessary to talk about the merits of a living word, as well as the absolute benefits of consulting with a specialist. However, this kind of consultation is not always possible to practically implement. Often a doctor has to independently solve a diagnostic and therapeutic task, and in such cases his constant consultant, especially at the beginning of medical practice, should be a monograph reflecting the current state of the main issues of obstetrics.

Based on the views expressed, I set myself the task of reworking the previously published guide for a practical doctor.

This 5th edition of the manual does not claim to be an exhaustive presentation of all issues of obstetrics. It pursues a much more modest task - to state the most important and frequently occurring forms of complications and indicate the most appropriate and most effective modern treatment.

The author will be satisfied if the reader - the doctor with the benefit for the patients extracts from the knowledge he needs.