Anatomy is the domain of biology (internal morphology). Anatomy studies the human body by systems (systematic anatomy). Accordingly, it consists of a number of sections: the doctrine of the osseous system - osteology; the doctrine of joints of bones, joints and ligaments - syndesmology and arthrology; the doctrine of the muscular system - myology; the doctrine of the vascular system - angiology; the doctrine of the nervous system - neurology; the doctrine of the sense organs is esthesiology. Anatomy of the internal organs is allocated to a special section - splanchnology. Systematic anatomy is complemented by topographic, or regional, describing primarily the spatial relationships of organs, which is of particular interest for surgery . The study of the structure of the organism with the naked eye is the subject of macroscopic anatomy. Using a microscope allows you to study the subtle structure of organs - microscopic anatomy. The term "normal anatomy" emphasizes its difference from the pathological anatomy, which studies the changes in organs and systems in diseases. An important phase in the study of the structure of the body is an analysis accompanied by a thorough description (descriptive anatomy). The study of the structure of the body in dynamics in connection with functions determines the content of functional anatomy, the special section of which is the experimental anatomy. Features of the structure of the body and organs in the process of individual development of the organism are investigated by age anatomy. Plastic anatomy, studying the external forms and proportions of the human body, has great practical importance for the visual arts. Comparative anatomy systematizes data on the anatomy of representatives of the animal world to identify the anatomical features of man that developed during the evolution.
This section of the site is a textbook on human anatomy in pictures. It outlines questions on the history of anatomy, general issues, the structure of the musculoskeletal system, digestive, respiratory, genitourinary and endocrine glands. Further, the structure of the cardiovascular system, the lymphatic system, the central nervous system with conductive pathways, the peripheral nervous system, the head nerves, the autonomic nervous system, the sense organs are set out. The material is presented according to the systemic principle, functional and topographic features, organogenesis, age features, developmental anomalies are noted in each section, comparative anatomical data are given. Anatomical atlas is illustrated with colored pictures and diagrams.
This training manual "Human Anatomy" is designed for students of medical institutions and corresponds to the curriculum. The material of the textbook is set out in such a way that the private questions, then the embryological and phylogenetic data, are first analyzed. Many sections contain information on the age, topographic and functional features of organs. The data summarized in other textbooks on blood supply and innervation in this manual are omitted in connection with the fact that during the study of internal organs students are still unfamiliar with the structure of the circulatory and lymphatic systems, as well as the nervous system. Such material is useful for doctors and should be stated in the manual or at the latest in the textbook of topographic anatomy. In this manual sections on the structure of bones, ligamentous apparatus and muscles are presented more briefly, and the structure of internal organs is more detailed. This is due to the fact that the doctor in practice is more likely to face internal diseases.
The manual has many illustrations that will help you learn the material. Naturally, the purpose of education is not the memorization of many anatomical terms that, without due reinforcement, will be forgotten in the course of time, but understanding of the general plan of the human structure. Anatomy is part of biology, therefore the structure of all organs, systems, and the living organism as a whole are considered in terms of their development and functional relationships. Studying the anatomy of a person with the right methodological positions from the first days of acquaintance with medicine should contribute to the formation of a materialistic thinking and world outlook of a doctor, since anatomy along with biology, histology, physiology, pathology and biochemistry forms the basis of theoretical training. Like any science, the anatomy includes questions of applied importance that are important for clinical medicine, biological questions that are necessary for expanding the medical horizon and are needed to answer the natural question: "How does the person work?" There is an opinion that the human anatomy is allegedly difficult . Our knowledge of the most perfect and wonderful creation of nature as a person is today is still incomplete, but, as the history of anatomy shows, they were even more primitive 2000-3000 years ago. And if much has been achieved on the way of knowing the structure of man, it is only thanks to the mind of man in his curiosity. Once upon a time, scientists were happy if they could see into the belly of a being similar to themselves, now, summoning the modern achievements of applied and fundamental sciences to help, they reveal molecular combinations and learn their own nature. On these roads there are many difficulties and many joys. The knowledge of the structure of a person is an internal need of a student who devoted his life to the most noble cause - deliverance of mankind from suffering, who chose the profession of a doctor who, from ancient times, requires a person to give all the fullness of moral and intellectual forces.
- Human blood vessels
- Life as a biological phenomenon
- Man and animals
- The concept of the structure and functions of a cell
- The concept of tissues
- On some basic principles of the structure and activity of the organism
As already mentioned above, the internal organs provide the vegetative (plant) functions of the organism, ie, nutrition, respiration, excretion of metabolic products, and reproduction. We will get acquainted with their structure and activities, as well as with some conditions necessary for the normal functioning of these bodies. The device of movement Regulation of body functions
- Glands of internal secretion (biochemical regulation)
- Nervous system (nervous regulation)
The content of anatomy
Man has undergone a complex biological evolution and united in himself from the biological side a natural and natural, and with a historical - a social and social being. Its structure and functions are fully understood by biology and social laws. Human anatomy belongs to the biological sciences. Human anatomy is a science that studies the origin, development, external and internal structure, functional features of a living person. Human anatomy aims to describe the shape, macroscopic structure, topography of organs, taking into account the sexual, individual, constitutional features of the organism, as well as phylogenetic (from phylon - genus, genesis - development) and ontogenetic (from ontos - individual) developmental moments. The study of the structure of man is carried out from the standpoint of a holistic organism. Anatomy also attracts data from anthropology - the science of man. Anthropology considers a person not only age, gender and individual characteristics, but also racial, ethnic, professional, studies social influences, finds out the factors that determine the historical development of man. Thus, biology considers a person from an evolutionary position, which plays a role in shaping the materialist worldview of a Soviet doctor.
Human anatomy is of great practical importance for medicine. Anatomy along with histology, physiology, biochemistry and other disciplines forms the basis of theoretical knowledge in the training of a doctor. The outstanding physiologist IP Pavlov noted that, only by knowing the structure and functions of organs, we can correctly understand the causes of diseases and the possibility of their elimination. Without knowledge of the structure of a person, it is impossible to understand the changes caused by the disease, to establish the localization of the pathological process, to perform surgical interventions, and consequently, to correctly diagnose diseases and treat patients. In this regard, 170 years ago, one of the most prominent Russian physicians, E. Mukhin (1766-1850), spoke very figuratively: "A doctor is not an anatomist, not only useless, but also harmful." When in the period of scholasticism and the influence of religion (XIII century) physicians were forbidden to open corpses and study at least the basics of anatomy, the doctors' knowledge was so primitive that the public demanded permission from the church for autopsy.
What is the content of anatomy? The term "anatomy" comes from the ancient Greek word anatemnein - dissecting, dismembering. This is due to the fact that the first and basic method of human research was the method of dismembering the corpse. At present, when the researcher involves many other methods for understanding the internal and external structure of a living person, the anatomy does not correspond to the content of his name. Nevertheless, nowadays, for the description of the structure and topography of organs, dissection of the corpse is used, which is one of the methods for studying shape and structure. However, the structure of organs and their functions can be fully understood only by the combination of many methods of investigation.
1. Using the method of anthropometry, one can measure growth, the relationship of parts, establish the body mass, constitution, individual features of the structure of a person, his race.
2. By the method of preparation it is possible to cut the tissues layer by layer in order to study them and isolate the muscles, blood vessels, nerves and other formations visible to the naked eye from the surrounding tissues and cellulose. This method allows you to obtain data on the form of organs, their relationships.
3. The injection method is filled with a colored mass, diluted with linseed oil, kerosene, gasoline, chloroform, ether or other solvents of the body cavity, lumen of the bronchial tree, intestine, blood and lymphatic vessels. The method was first applied in the 16th century. For injection, solidifying masses in the form of latex (liquid rubber), polymers, molten waxes or metals are also used. Thanks to the method of injection, the knowledge of the structure of the vascular system has been broadened to a considerable extent. The method of injection was particularly useful in cases where subsequent corrosion, enlightenment of organs and tissues are carried out.
4. The method of corrosion was first used by Swammerdam (XVII century), and in Russia - by IV Buyalsky. The organ with blood vessels filled with hardened mass was immersed in warm water and was kept in it for a long time. The surrounding tissues rotted and remained only the mold of the hardened mass. This process can be accelerated when the tissues are destroyed by concentrated acid or alkali, which is currently used. Using the corrosion method, you can see the true shape of the cavity, where the mass was poured. The disadvantage of the method is that the impression of the cavity is not associated with the tissues.
5. The method of enlightenment. After dehydration of tissues, the drug is impregnated with liquid. In this case, the refractive index of the impregnated tissue is approximated to the refractive index of the liquid. Injected blood vessels or colored nerves will be visible on such relatively transparent preparations. The advantage of this method over corrosion is that in the enlightened preparations the spatial arrangement of blood vessels or nerves remains.
6. The microscopic method, in which a relatively small increase is used, has now become very widespread in anatomy. Thanks to the application of this method, it was possible to see formations that can not be detected on histological sections. For example, the network of blood and lymphatic capillaries, intraorganic plexuses of blood vessels and nerves were revealed by the method of microscopic anatomy, the structure and form of lobules, acini, etc. were specified.
7. Methods of fluoroscopy and radiography can study the intravital form and functional features of organs in a living person. These methods are also successfully used in the study on the corpse. Very widely in clinical practice and experiment a combination of injection of contrast substances with subsequent radiography is used. Due to this contrast, the studied entities are more clearly distinguished on the screen or imprinted on the X-ray film.
8. The method of transmission by reflected rays is mainly used on a living person, for example, for studying blood capillaries of the skin, mucous membranes (capillaroscopy), and retinal vessels.
9. The method of endoscopic research allows using devices introduced through natural and artificial openings to examine the color, the relief of the organs and the mucous membrane.
10. The experimental method in anatomy is used to determine the functional significance of an organ, tissue, or system. It allows you to establish the plasticity of tissues, their recovery abilities, etc. With the help of the experiment, you can get a lot of new data on the restructuring of organs and the organism in response to external influences.
11. The mathematical method is often used in anatomical studies, as, unlike other methods, it allows us to derive more reliable quantitative indicators. With the development of computer technology, mathematical methods will take the leading place in morphological research.
12. The illustration method is used to transmit an accurate documentary image or to create schematized drawings of anatomical structures. Accurate anatomical data can be documented by taking photographs and then making photographic prints or black-and-white or color transparencies (slides) that are projected onto the screen. During the preparation, many anatomical structures, especially those located in different planes, can not be photographed. In these cases, an accurate sketch of the preparation is made. Sometimes you need to create schemas. The creation of anatomical schemes is conditioned by the fact that neither photographs nor precise drawings transmit the internal architecture of the organ, for example, the structure of the glands, the topography of the conducting pathways of the brain and spinal cord, etc. The schematic drawing represents the most complicated form of preparing illustrations. This complexity is due to the fact that the schemes are created on the basis of data obtained by dissection techniques, histological, histochemical, electron diffraction and experimental studies and clinical observations. Synthesizing the data of many methods, it is possible to create schematic drawings.
In anatomical studies, filming is now widely used, especially with the documentation of moving objects. This method can document the sequence of dissection and dissection of the corpse, topographic and anatomical data. The method of filming clearly shows the functional disorders in experimental studies: movement of blood, lymph, urine, saliva, the function of the musculoskeletal system, etc.
13. The method of ultrasound scanning is relatively new and still inadequately used in anatomical studies. Currently used in clinical practice to identify the topography and form of organs in pathological conditions, the position of the fetus in the womb of the mother, the relief of the cranial cavity, the spinal canal, purulent cavities, echinococcal blisters, stones of the bile excretory and urinary system, and sometimes tumor nodes.
14. The method of holography is used to obtain a volumetric image of an object using laser beams. It represents a new methodical direction in the technique of scientific research and will play a significant role in the development of morphological science.
The most important requirement of science, based on the foundations of dialectical materialism, is the study of things and phenomena in their origin and development using the historical method. Lenin aimed scientists to look at things from historical positions: "... To approach the issue from the scientific point of view is not to forget the basic historical connection, to look at each question from the point of view of how a well-known phenomenon in history has arisen, what major stages in its development this phenomenon has been, and from the point of view of its development see what this thing has become now. "The historical approach uses materials from anthropology, paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology, which allows one to study man as a a social and social entity that has undergone a complex evolution, actively adapting to nature and changing its psychophysiological characteristics under the influence of the social conditions of the development of society.
Human anatomy can be methodically studied differently: for individual systems (systematic anatomy); describe only the external form of man (plastic, or relief, anatomy); to study the structure of organs and systems depending on their functions (functional anatomy); to study the mutual arrangement of systems and organs taking into account age and individual characteristics (topographic anatomy), to study the structure of organs in different age periods (age anatomy).
Systematic anatomy mainly describes the form, structure, topography, age features, individual differences, development and anomalies, phylogenetic features for individual systems. Such an approach in the study of anatomy is most suitable for those who are not familiar with the subject, since the complex is decomposed into component parts.
Plastic anatomy contains information on the external forms of the body, which are determined by the development of the skeleton, protruding tubercles and crests, palpable through the skin, muscle group contours and muscle tone, elasticity and skin color, the depth of its folds, the thickness of subcutaneous fat. The state of the internal organs is studied only to such an extent as to show how this affects the external structure. Plastic anatomy is of practical importance not only for artists and sculptors, but also for doctors, as external forms can also be used to judge the state of human health.
Functional anatomy complements the data of descriptive anatomy. It sets the task of studying the structure of organs and systems in unity with the function, considering the human body in dynamics, revealing the mechanisms of shape rearrangement under the influence of external factors.
Topographic anatomy studies the structure of a person in separate areas, the spatial correlation of organs and systems, taking into account individual and age features. Elements of topographic anatomy necessarily accompany the systematic presentation of the material.
Age anatomy studies the structure of a person in different age periods. Under the influence of age and external factors, the structure and form of human organs change with a certain regularity.
In children of the first years of life, adults and the elderly, there are significant differences in the anatomical structure. In clinical practice, even there were independent disciplines, for example pediatrics - the science of the child, geriatrics - the science of the elderly person.
Together with the descriptive anatomy of a person, it is necessary to study (at least in general terms) the anatomy of invertebrates and vertebrates - comparative anatomy. Based on the data of comparative anatomy, one can understand the evolution and development of living beings. Using comparative-anatomical data and embryology data, which are described mainly in the stage of organogenesis, it is possible to find common signs that contribute to an understanding of the history of the development of man, his organs and systems.