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Aortic aneurysm

Aortic aneurysm is a limited expansion of the lumen of the aorta due to protrusion of its altered wall. More common in men. The causes of aortic aneurysm are usually syphilitic aortitis, aortic atherosclerosis , rarely - trauma. Clinical manifestations depend on the size, localization of the aortic aneurysm, etc.

With the aneurysm of the ascending part of the aorta of considerable size, a protrusion of the chest area in the form of a pulsating "tumor" is formed. Patients complain of dull, pressing long pains in the upper part of the chest. Systolic tremor and noise in the handle area of ​​the sternum and in the II — III intercostal spaces are noted. Often the aneurysm of the ascending part of the aorta is combined with aortic valve insufficiency. Aneurysm of the aortic arch leads to compression of the trachea , left bronchus , recurrent nerve, cervical sympathetic nodes, which causes painful cough, wheezing (wheezing) breathing, hoarseness.

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Aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta is much less common and leads to compression of the left lung, esophagus , vertebral bodies and nerve roots, which causes destruction of the vertebral bodies and ribs, disorders of swallowing , pneumonia , recurrent hemoptysis due to pressure on the lung tissue. When abdominal aortic aneurysm, a pulsating tumor appears in the left epigastric region, above which systolic tremor and noise can be detected; marked abdominal pain, intestinal obstruction. The leading role in the lifetime recognition of an aortic aneurysm is played by X-ray examination (Fig.). Complications of the aortic aneurysm - thrombosis and rupture of the aortic wall with fatal bleeding. The prognosis for aortic aneurysm depends on its location, size, complications, and the activity of the process that caused it.

aortic arch aneurysm
Major Aortic Aneurysm

Treatment of aortic aneurysm surgical. Aneurysm of syphilitic etiology shows active specific therapy.

Dissecting aortic aneurysm occurs due to rupture of the inner or inner and middle membranes of the aorta. The blood penetrating into the rupture stratifies the aortic wall. Often comes the complete rupture of the aorta with hemorrhage into the pericardial cavity, pleura , etc. It occurs in atherosclerosis , less often in syphilis, mainly in older men . Clinical manifestations depend on the location of the bundle. The dissecting aneurysm of the ascending part and the aortic arch is manifested by severe chest pains, spreading along the aorta, along the spine , spreading to the neck, etc. If the pathological process captures the mouths of the vessels leaving the aortic arch and supplying blood to the brain , a neurological form resembling brain damage. The clinical picture (symptoms and signs) of a dissecting abdominal aortic aneurysm resembles an acute abdomen , renal colic. Often there are shock, collapse. The prognosis is extremely difficult, patients die from fatal bleeding. Surgical treatment.