The Surgery


Surgery is a field of clinical medicine that studies diseases, the main method of treatment of which is surgery.

Surgery is one of the oldest medical specialties. As a clinical discipline, surgery has been continuously complicated and improved.

At different times, ophthalmology , otorhinolaryngology, neurosurgery, urology , gynecology , oncology, traumatology , etc. became independent from her and became independent.

To study the surgical patient, in addition to traditional clinical, laboratory and roentgenological methods, a number of special instrumental, radiographic and functional studies ( bronchoscopy , esophagoscopy , laparoscopy , angiocardiography, bronchospirometry, etc.) are widely used in recent years.

Surgical method of treatment [bloody and bloodless surgical operations (see)] is used for diseases of all organs and tissues of the human body. Distinguish: surgery of abdominal organs (abdominal surgery) and thoracic (thoracic surgery) cavities; In this case, separate narrow areas of surgery are distinguished (surgery of the lungs, heart, vessels, rectum , etc.); maxillofacial surgery, reconstructive surgery - restoration of impaired functions and lost anatomical formations.


Development of methods and technical methods of surgical operations is carried out by operative surgery.

Basics of surgery: aseptic (see) and antiseptic (see), various types of anesthesia (see Anesthesia, Anesthesia, Anesthesia), preoperative preparation and care after surgery (see Preoperative and Postoperative Period ).

Modern surgery requires the surgeon not only to master the techniques of surgical intervention, but also the profound knowledge of other medical disciplines, especially anatomy, normal and pathological physiology, therapy, pharmacology , etc.

In the view of most people, the most important weapon of a surgeon is a scalpel, through which it is introduced into the body to alleviate its suffering. But there are also bloodless surgical interventions. Modern capabilities of technology allow many operations "without surgery" using laser, endoscopes, ultrasonic beams. How the scientific and technological revolution helps the health service is described below.

The information is intended for medical workers, students of medical schools.