It is estimated that one third of adults experience noise in the ears (ringing or hum) at some point in their lives, and between 10 and 15% of people suffer from chronic tinnitus. Tinnitus is rarely a sign of a serious illness. In an environment of complete silence, noise in the ears can occur without the pathology of the hearing organ (physiological noise); it is explained by the perception of the movement of blood in the capillaries and small vessels of the inner ear. Pathological noise in the ears is observed along with hearing loss in various diseases of the external, middle and inner ear, with auditory nerve neuritis , as well as intoxication with industrial poisons (arsenic, lead , mercury ) and certain medicinal substances ( quinine , streptomycin , salicylic preparations). The nature of noise in the ears can have some significance in the diagnosis of ear disorders. A well-known idea of the intensity and tonality of noise in the ears can be obtained by drowning out this noise by sounds of varying strength and height derived from the audiometer. Treatment for noise in the ears should be aimed at the underlying disease of the organ of hearing.
There are two types of ringing in the ears: subjective, which is the most common form and objective, which is relatively rare. With subjective tinnitus, only a person with this condition hears noise. With objective noise in the ears, the doctor can also detect this ringing, buzzing or clicking.The
A perceived tinnitus sound in the ears may be caused by any of several ear conditions, including clogging of the external ear canal with earwax or inflammation of the membrane of the tympanic membrane, middle ear or inner ear. Tinnitus can also occur due to the impact of strong external noise, for example after a rock concert, from taking high doses of certain medications, such as aspirin or chloroquine (a medicine for malaria) or from excessive use of the phone. Tinnitus can be accompanied by hearing loss, especially in the high frequency range. Tinnitus can also be caused by hypertension (abnormally high blood pressure), atherosclerosis (accumulation of fat and cholesterol in the inner layer of arteries) and cranial nerve tumors (acoustic neuroma) or tumors that put pressure on the blood vessels of the head or neck. Ringing in the ears is sometimes accompanied by vertigo. Sometimes there is a so-called musical tinnitus or a musical hallucination, which may seem like a familiar melody or song. This usually occurs in the elderly, who have a hearing loss, but remained a strong interest in music.
Despite these known factors, for the majority of those suffering from noise in the ears, no cause has been identified. Tinnitus can become more pronounced when the injured person is tired, and it is often more obvious at night than in the daytime. Tinnitus can affect people of all ages, including children, but is more common in people over 65 years of age.
Treatment of tinnitus can include the simple removal of excess earwax or the cessation of the use of drugs that can induce this condition. Surgery may be required to correct vascular disorders that lead to tinnitus. Hearing aids, noise suppression devices and similar methods can be used to mask the evidence of a beep or buzz in the ears. It was observed that music therapy, in which the patient listens to music that lacks notes or sounds equivalent in frequency, the sound of tinnitus that the patient hears reduces the perceived loudness of chronic tinnitus in some people. In severe cases, drugs such as alprazolam and amitriptyline may be prescribed to reduce the symptoms of tinnitus.The
Tinnitus or tinnitus (tinnitus aurium; synonymous with ringing in the ears, derived from the Latin word tinnire , which means ringing ) is a spontaneous sensation by a person of sounds of varying height and loudness. Noise in the ears is divided into physiological and pathological.
Physiological noise in the ears arises in the absence of ear pathology, if a person is in complete silence. The spontaneous auditory sensations arising in these conditions can be characterized by sounds of different frequency and intensity.
This phenomenon is supposedly explained by the following factors: 1) biochemical processes occurring at the level of hairy cells of the organ of Corti or neurons of the auditory nerve; 2) the perception of blood flow in the capillaries of the cochlea; 3) the absence of background noise in silence conditions; 4) the perception of the motion of molecules in the liquids of the cochlea.The
The pathological ringing in the ears is divided into objective and subjective. Objective noise in the ears, perceived not only by the patient, but also by surrounding persons, in particular by a doctor, is rare. This noise is accompanied by a decrease in hearing.
Objective noise in the ears can depend on muscle contractions, blood flow in the vessels, movements in the joints, pressure changes in the tympanum.
Subjective pathological ringing in the ears, felt only by the patient himself, is the most common form of ear noise. It can be permanent or temporary, simple or complex, intense or weak, in one ear or in both ears, etc. Noise in the ears can be combined with a hearing loss, and maybe the only symptom of the disease. Noise in the ears may depend on pathological changes in the external (foreign body), the middle (catarrh of the auditory tube, adhesive otitis media, tympanosclerosis, otosclerosis) or internal ear (edema of the labyrinth, Ménière's disease, etc.). One of the frequent causes of ringing in the ears is intoxication of the body with various medicinal substances, such as quinine, cocaine, salicylates, barbiturates, antibiotics, preparations containing arsenic, mercury and other toxic substances. Of the professional factors in the occurrence of noise in the ears, the most important is intoxication with aniline, arsenic, mercury, light gas, carbon monoxide, phosphorus, lead. Noise in the ears can occur during acute or chronic infections: influenza, pneumonia, diphtheria, parotitis, typhoid, malaria, etc. In the diagnosis of subjective noise in the ears, anamnesis is essential. The idea of the tonality of tinnitus in the ears can give a study based on the muffling of noise in the ears with clean tones or the noise of a certain frequency spectrum and the intensity obtained from the audiometer.
Treatment of noise in the ears is a very difficult task. There are general and local treatment, exposure to physical factors, psychotherapy. With pronounced noise in the ears, surgical treatment is used.